BACKGROUND AND AIMS Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) has been used to detect metastasis in the diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). However, the utility of PET/CT to assess primary tumor for endoscopic resectability and prognosis in early EAC remains unclear. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association of PET/CT findings with histopathological tumor invasion depth and survival outcomes. METHODS EAC patients who underwent PET/CT followed by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) were included. Pathology on EMR and survival outcomes from a prospectively maintained database was retrieved. Two radiologists independently reviewed the PET/CT using the following parameters: detection of malignancy, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake intensity, FDG focality, FDG eccentricity, esophageal thickness, maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax), and SUVmax ratio (lesion/liver). RESULTS There were 72 eligible patients: 42 (58.3%) had T1a lesions, and 30 (41.7%) had ≥ T1b. Only SUVmax ratio was associated with tumor invasion depth (odds ratio=2.77, 95% confidence interval 1.26-7.73, P=0.0075). Using a cut-off of 1.48, the sensitivity and specificity of SUVmax ratio for identification of T1a lesions were 43.3% and 80.9%, respectively. Adjusting the SUVmax ratio to 2.14, 16.7% (5/30) of ≥ T1b patients were identified without any false-positive cases. Multivariate analysis showed SUVmax ratio, Charlson comorbidity index, and esophagectomy were independent predictors for survival. CONCLUSIONS SUVmax ratio (lesion/liver) is more accurate in predicting endoscopic resectability and mortality for EAC than other PET/CT parameters and appears promising as a useful adjunct to the current diagnostic work-up.