OBJECTIVES Milk contains considerable quantities of estrogens and progesterone and as such may be one of the risk factors for hormone-related cancers. To determine the hormonal effects of commercial and traditional types of milk, we performed uterotrophic tests. METHODS Forty-five rats were ovariectomized and divided into three groups of 15 animals each. The animals were kept for 7 days on powdered chow and one of three different liquids: commercial milk (C), traditional milk (T), or water. At autopsy, wet and dry uterine weights were determined. The cell heights of the uterine epithelium and endometrium were determined. The uterine 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index of the epithelium and endometrium gland epithelium was also assessed. RESULTS The weights of wet and dry uterus were 142 ± 13 and 112 ± 10 mg in the C group, 114 ± 30 and 91 ± 24 mg in the T group, and 87 ± 6 and 69 ± 5 mg in the W group. Significant differences in wet and dry uterus weights were found between all pairs of groups. The ratio of the wet uterine weight to body weight was significantly higher in the C and T groups than in the W group. The heights of the uterine epithelium and endometrium were higher and BrdU labeling index was greater in the C group than in the T and W groups. CONCLUSIONS Commercially available milk and traditional milk have uterotrophic effects on young ovariectomized rats. Our findings indicate that these uterotrophic effects in the milk groups were partly due to the estrogen and progesterone in the milk.