# Using particles to sample and control implicit surfaces

@article{Witkin2005UsingPT, title={Using particles to sample and control implicit surfaces}, author={Andrew P. Witkin and Paul S. Heckbert}, journal={ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Courses}, year={2005} }

We present a new particle-based approach to sampling and controlling implicit surfaces. A simple constraint locks a set of particles onto a surface while the particles and the surface move. We use the constraint to make surfaces follow particles, and to make particles follow surfaces. We implement control points for direct manipulation by specifying particle motions, then solving for surface motion that maintains the constraint. For sampling and rendering, we run the constraint in the other…

## 343 Citations

### Robust particle systems for curvature dependent sampling of implicit surfaces

- Computer ScienceInternational Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications 2005 (SMI' 05)
- 2005

A new class of energy functions for distributing particles on implicit surfaces and a corresponding set of numerical techniques that provide stable, scalable, efficient, and controllable mechanisms for distributing particle systems that sample implicit surfaces within a locally adaptive framework are presented.

### Using particles to sample and control more complex implicit surfaces

- Computer ScienceProceedings SMI. Shape Modeling International 2002
- 2002

These new techniques allow constrained particle systems to sample and control more complex models than before possible and develop adapters, which are special shape-transformation operators that automatically adjust the underlying parameters to yield the same effect as the transformation.

### Sampling Point-Set Implicits

- Computer SciencePBG@Eurographics
- 2007

A novel approach for point-set implicit surface sampling that is able to rapidly distribute particles over the surface of 3D objects using the inner structure of a MPU implicit to obtain a near-optimal initial distribution, with higher densities in areas of higher complexity.

### Preprocessing for Accelerating Convergence of Repulsive-Particle Systems for Sampling Implicit Surfaces

- Computer ScienceIEEE International Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications 2007 (SMI '07)
- 2007

A novel preprocessing technique to tune an initial state of the particle systems, which accelerates convergence of the particles systems noticeably keeping the number of particles constant and leads to uniform inter-particle distances in the final convergent state.

### Clipart Rendering with Dynamic Particle Systems

- Computer Science
- 2005

A new particle-based method for samp ling and rendering several types of the nonphotorealistic featu r contours on implicit surfaces: silhouette, shadow, specular s h dow and suggestive contours is presented.

### Using Langevin-Type Stochastic-Dynamical Particles for Sampling and Rendering Implicit Surfaces

- Physics
- 2000

A new sampling method for 2D and 3D implicit surfaces based on a stochastic process defined by the Langevin equation with a Gaussian random-force term that works very well for implicit surfaces which are complicated topologically, mathematically, and/or in shape.

### A particle system for implicit surfaces reconstruction

- Computer Science, PhysicsProceedings of 2011 International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology
- 2011

A particle system which displays implicit surfaces is presented, which can finally reach a stable and balance state and is effective on displaying singularity points.

### MarchingParticles: Fast Generation of Particles for the Sampling of Implicit Surfaces

- Computer Science
- 2007

A technique is proposed which enables us to rapidly generate the set of final particles with near-optimal positions and does not need the usual split-and-death criterion anymore and only about ten relaxation steps are necessary to get a high quality sampling.

### Sampling implicit surfaces based on stochastic differential equations with converging constraint

- Computer ScienceComput. Graph.
- 2000

### Deformable Surfaces using Physically Based Particle Systems

- Materials ScienceComputer Graphics
- 1995

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