Using laboratory models to test treatment: morphine reduces dyspnea and hypercapnic ventilatory response.

@article{Banzett2011UsingLM,
  title={Using laboratory models to test treatment: morphine reduces dyspnea and hypercapnic ventilatory response.},
  author={Robert Banzett and Lewis Adams and Carl R O'donnell and Sean A Gilman and Robert W. Lansing and Richard M Schwartzstein},
  journal={American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine},
  year={2011},
  volume={184 8},
  pages={920-7}
}
RATIONALE Opioids are commonly used to relieve dyspnea, but clinical data are mixed and practice varies widely. OBJECTIVES Evaluate the effect of morphine on dyspnea and ventilatory drive under well-controlled laboratory conditions. METHODS Six healthy volunteers received morphine (0.07 mg/kg) and placebo intravenously on separate days (randomized, blinded). We measured two responses to a CO(2) stimulus: (1) perceptual response (breathing discomfort; described by subjects as "air hunger… CONTINUE READING

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