Gas-phase reactors, including the mist reactor, have distinct advantages over liquid-phase reactors including the ability to manipulate the gas composition, to allow effective gas exchange in a densely growing biomass, and to affect secondary metabolite production. Mathematical modeling suggested that roots in a mist reactor are often too sparsely packed to capture mist particles efficiently and cannot, therefore, meet the nutrient demands required to maintain high growth rates. Indeed, growth rates of Artemisia annua hairy roots increased significantly when the initial packing density increased or when a higher sucrose concentration was used in the medium. Growth kinetics for 2, 4, and 6 days, however, showed a decrease or stationary growth rate after only 4 days for both 3 and 5% sucrose feeds. Residual medium analyses indicated that carbon was not exhausted, nor were any of the other major nutrients including phosphate. Increasing the mist duty cycle at constant carbon flux through the reactor reduced the growth rates slightly. In general, the aerosol deposition model correctly predicted how to optimize hairy root growth in the mist reactor.