Musical tempo octave error reducing based on the statistics of tempogram
- Fu-Hai Frank Wu
- 2015 23rd Mediterranean Conference on Control and…
We describe a novel tempo estimation method based on decomposing musical audio into sources using principal latent component analysis (PLCA). The approach is motivated by the observation that in rhythmically complex music, some layers may be more rhythmically regular than the overall mix, thus facilitating tempo detection. Each excerpt was analyzed using PLCA and the resulting components were each tempo tracked using a standard autocorrelationbased algorithm. We describe several techniques for aggregating or choosing among the multiple estimates that result from this process to extract a global tempo estimate. The system was evaluated on the MIREX 2006 training database as well as a newly constructed database of rhythmically complex electronic music consisting of 27 examples (IDM DB). For these databases the algorithms improved accuracy by 10% (60% vs 50%) and 22.3% (48.2% vs. 25.9%) respectively. These preliminary results suggest that for some types of music, source-separation may lead to better tempo detection. 1. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION A working definition of tempo is the rate of the underlying rhythmic pulse of music determined by a human listener tapping along to the music, typically expressed in beats per minute (BPM). This may differ from a notated tempo, and different listeners, or the same listener at different times, often entrain to different metrical levels, so that some tapping rates may be half or double as fast as others. Further, in some types of music, the most natural way to tap along is asymmetric (e.g. tapping on the accented first and third beat in a fast group of five beats). For our purposes, these complexities are important to acknowledge at the outset as they set natural bounds on performance and suggest appropriate ways of judging accuracy. Tempo estimation is a fundamental MIR task and underlies almost all rhythmic descriptions of music. However, state-of-the-art tempo detection is still highly variable in its accuracy, working well on most simple cases, but often performing poorly or not at all on rhythmically complex Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. c © 2009 International Society for Music Information Retrieval. music . The current work is motivated by two observations: 1) rhythmically complex music may be constructed out of components or layers (e.g. musical parts or sources) that are rhythmically simpler than the mix and thus easier to track; 2) in many types of music, humans track the beat or the tempo by hearing out a particular instrument or part. For example, in many types of rhythmically complex electronic music, a “click track” is present in the mix. More generally, in many musical genres a particular part plays a time-keeping function: for example, in standard jazz the walking bass line is the time keeper, in Indian music the tabla, in Afro-Cuban music the clave. Being able to hear out these time-keeping parts makes tempo tracking easier for humans.