Using Self-View Television to Distinguish between Self-Examination and Social Behavior in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

  title={Using Self-View Television to Distinguish between Self-Examination and Social Behavior in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)},
  author={Ken Marten and Suchi Psarakos},
  journal={Consciousness and Cognition},
In mirror mark tests dolphins twist, posture, and engage in open-mouth and head movements, often repetitive. Because postures and an open mouth are also dolphin social behaviors, we used self-view television as a manipulatable mirror to distinguish between self-examination and social behavior. Two dolphins were exposed to alternating real-time self-view ("mirror mode") and playback of the same to determine if they distinguished between them. The adult male engaged in elaborate open-mouth… 

Self-recognition in pigeons revisited.

P pigeons spontaneously integrated the learned self-directed and mirror-use behavior and displayed self- directed behavior in a mark test, indicating that pigeons display mirror self-recognition after training of suitable ontogenetic contingency.

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The data suggest that television may serve as a useful enrichment device for certain individuals and species of cetaceans, as well as a cognitive experimental tool, as long as sex, species, and individual differences are taken into consideration when interpreting results.

Body and self in dolphins

  • L. Herman
  • Psychology
    Consciousness and Cognition
  • 2012

Marine Mammals in Front of the Mirror—Body Experiences to Self-Recognition: A Cognitive Ethological Methodology Combined with Phenomenological Questioning

A new dual conceptual framework is introduced that could be a useful tool to understanding complex phenomena like self-recognition and self-consciousness in animals and reports on some major epistemological and methodological pitfalls to these studies.

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Infants are born able to express their emotions, and they can synchronise their expressions with their mothers' acts. They are coherent psychological beings, well equipped for social life and

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Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent and reason about objects that have disappeared from view, is a fundamental cognitive skill that has been extensively studied in human infants and