Using Developmental, Cognitive, and Neuroscience Approaches to Understand Executive Control in Young Children

@article{Espy2004UsingDC,
  title={Using Developmental, Cognitive, and Neuroscience Approaches to Understand Executive Control in Young Children},
  author={Kimberly Andrews Espy},
  journal={Developmental Neuropsychology},
  year={2004},
  volume={26},
  pages={379 - 384}
}
  • K. Espy
  • Published 1 August 2004
  • Psychology
  • Developmental Neuropsychology
The 7 articles in this special issue address the nature of executive control in young children. Executive control is framed in a developmental context, where the unique aspects of cognition in this age range are considered. The set of articles demonstrates the multidisciplinary approaches to study cognition in young children that includes application of cognitive, neuroscience, and developmental paradigms in typically developing youngsters, as well as those affected by clinical conditions, such… 
Assessment of executive function in preschool-aged children.
TLDR
A rating scale of preschoolers' executive function in the everyday context is presented, and a model of executive function assessment that incorporates both controlled performance tasks that target specific aspects ofExecutive function and parent/teacher ratings that target more global aspects of self-regulation in the Everyday context is advocated.
An Observational Analysis of Executive Performance in School Children
Background. Today’s research on human executive functioning (EF) demonstrates a deepening understanding of this psychological concept as a mental process, as it has been assessed in testing contexts.
The relationship between executive functions and motor coordination: longitudinal impact on academic achievement and language
The reciprocal interactions between the motor and cognitive systems are critical during development. The thesis investigates this relationship by exploring Executive Functions (EFs) in children with
PASAT performance improves across adolescence in a sex-specific manner
BACKGROUND: The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is a sensitive measure of speed of information processing, sustained attention, and working memory. Notably, many of these cognitive
Executive Functions and Symptom Severity in an Italian Sample of Intellectually Able Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder
TLDR
A novel battery was used in order to assess three executive function abilities in a sample of 27 intellectually able preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), confirming the presence of EF deficits and highlighting a link between ASD symptoms and EF impairments in preschool age.
Executive control and dimensions of problem behaviors in preschool children.
TLDR
Preschool EC measured by laboratory tasks appears to tap abilities that strongly and robustly support broad control processes enabling behavioral regulation across cognitive and emotional domains.
Effects of Cognitive Training Programs on Executive Function in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review
TLDR
There is growing evidence for overall effectiveness of EF training, particularly when computerized, but caution should be taken when interpreting these findings owing to methodological limitations, the minimal number of papers retrieved, and a small samples of included studies.
Profiles of executive functioning in preschoolers with autism
TLDR
Both global and domain specific weaknesses in the children diagnosed with autism were found when compared to theChildren without autism, and the children without autism exhibited increased age-based performance on executive functioning tests measuring working memory, selfmonitoring, and planning/organization.
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References

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New Procedures to Assess Executive Functions in Preschool Children*
TLDR
Executive function task performance was related largely to age group, but not to sex or intelligence, and may be useful to delineate distinct cognitive profiles among preschool children with various neurological and developmental disorders.
Executive functions in children: Introduction to the special series
TLDR
The six articles in this series address different aspects of cognitive skills and behavioral functioning commonly described as executive functions, including the allocation of cognitive resources, planning, problem solving, response inhibition, self‐monitoring and regulation, and the maintenance of mental sets.
The Shape School: Assessing executive function in preschool children
Age‐related changes in executive function were examined on a new task, the Shape School, in 70 preschool children (32–68 months old). The Shape School is a colorful storybook designed to examine
The Contribution of Executive Functions to Emergent Mathematic Skills in Preschool Children
TLDR
Preschool children were administered an executive function battery that was reduced empirically to working memory, inhibitory control, and shifting abilities and predicted early arithmetic competency, with the observed relations robust after controlling statistically for child age, maternal education, and child vocabulary.
Neuropsychological approaches to children: towards a developmental neuropsychology.
Abstract Neuropsychologists working with children commonly infer a CNS basis for many developmental disabilities on the basis of test performance and behavioral observations. While there is nothing
Neuropsychological approaches to children: towards a developmental neuropsychology.
TLDR
A functional organization approach is proposed that separates the different types of variables underlying a developmental neuropsychology and focuses on behavioral theory and research addressing the development of children's abilities.
Executive Functions Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children: A Preliminary Analysis
TLDR
In both the TBI and comparison groups, performance improved with age on the DR and stationary boxes tasks, suggesting that shifting response set was not significantly altered by TBI.
Executive Function in Preschool Children: Examination Through Everyday Behavior
TLDR
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function was modified for use with children ages 2 through 5 years to assess executive functions in an everyday context and yielded a single 63-item measure with good internal consistency and temporal stability.
Using Path Analysis to Understand Executive Function Organization in Preschool Children
TLDR
Path analysis was used to determine the relations between complex problem solving and working memory, inhibition, and set shifting processes, and in younger children, inhibition was the strongest predictor of problem solving whereas working memory contributed more strongly in older children.
The Object Classification Task for Children (OCTC): A Measure of Concept Generation and Mental Flexibility in Early Childhood
TLDR
It is suggested that the ability to generate concepts emerges between 3 and 4 years of age, continuing to develop beyond the age of 7 years, and the OCTC is a useful measure of conceptual reasoning skills in early childhood.
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