Using Day and Night – Scheduling Retrieval Practice and Sleep

  title={Using Day and Night – Scheduling Retrieval Practice and Sleep},
  author={Meike Kroneisen and Carolina E. Kuepper-Tetzel},
  journal={Psychology Learning \& Teaching},
  pages={40 - 57}
Sleep right after studying new material is more conducive to memory than a period of wakefulness. Another way to counteract forgetting is to practice retrieval: taking a test strengthens memory more effectively than restudying the material. The current work aims at investigating the interaction between sleep and testing by asking if testing adds to, neutralizes, or decreases the effect of sleep on memory? We tested this in one pilot and one experiment by manipulating the timing of the practice… 

Figures from this paper

Future-relevant memories are not selectively strengthened during sleep
A robust memory benefit of overnight consolidation is observed, with the sleep group outperforming the wake group in both experiments, but knowledge of an upcoming test had no impact on sleep-associated consolidation in either experiment, suggesting that overnight memory processes were not enhanced for future-relevant information.
Effects of Sleep on Language and Motor Consolidation: Evidence of Domain General and Specific Mechanisms
Results at the group and individual levels suggest that some aspects of consolidation are shared across the motor and language domains, and more specifically, between motor sequence learning and grammar learning.
The effect of sleep on novel word learning in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that sleep generally benefits novel word acquisition and consolidation compared with wakefulness across differing retrieval domains.
PLAT 20(1) 2021: Enhancing Student Learning in Research and Educational Practice: The Power of Retrieval Practice and Feedback
Students and instructors are looking for effective study and instructional strategies that enhance student achievement across a range of content and conditions. The current Special Issue features


Sleep can reduce the testing effect: it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall of retrieved items unaffected.
The findings are consistent with the bifurcation model of the testing effect, according to which the distribution of memory strengths across items is shifted differentially by retrieving and restudying, with retrieval strengthening items to a much higher degree than restudy does.
Sleep Reduces the Testing Effect—But Not After Corrective Feedback and Prolonged Retention Interval
Both corrective feedback and prolonged retention intervals reduce the modulating role of sleep for the testing effect as it can be observed after 12-h delays and in the absence of corrective feedback, which suggests a fairly limited influence of sleep on the effect.
Retrieval and sleep both counteract the forgetting of spatial information.
Results overall support the conclusion that repeated reactivation through testing or sleeping stabilizes information against forgetting, and find the advantage for restudied over retested information was greater in the PM than AM group.
The whats and whens of sleep-dependent memory consolidation.
Effects of Early and Late Nocturnal Sleep on Declarative and Procedural Memory
The experiments for the first time dissociate specific effects of early and late sleep on two principal types of memory, declarative and procedural, in humans, and the benefit from sleep on recall depended on the phase of sleep and on the type of memory.
Morning recall of verbal material depends on prior sleep organization
The effects of tests on learning and forgetting
In three experiments, it is investigated whether memory tests enhance learning and reduce forgetting more than additional study opportunities do and whether testing enhanced overall recall more than restudying did.
Reversing the testing effect by feedback: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence
The results indicate that the reversed testing effect can arise without differential strengthening of restudied and retrieval-practiced items via feedback learning.
Sleep after learning aids memory recall.
It is shown that declarative memory is enhanced when sleep follows within a few hours of learning, independent of time of day, and with equal amounts of interference during retention intervals.