Useful applications and limits of battery powered implants in functional electrical stimulations.

@article{Lanmller1997UsefulAA,
  title={Useful applications and limits of battery powered implants in functional electrical stimulations.},
  author={H. Lanm{\"u}ller and Manfred Bijak and Winfried Mayr and Dietmar Rafolt and Stefan Sauermann and H. Thoma},
  journal={Artificial organs},
  year={1997},
  volume={21 3},
  pages={210-2}
}
Battery powered stimulation implants have been well-known for a long time as heart pacemakers. In the last few years, fully implantable stimulators have been used in the field of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for applications like dynamic cardiomyoplasty and electro-stimulated graciloplasty for fecal incontinence. The error rate of battery powered implants is significantly smaller than that for conventional stimulator systems, and the quality of life for the patients is increased… CONTINUE READING