Use of the concept of transparency in the design of hierarchically structured systems

@article{Parnas1975UseOT,
  title={Use of the concept of transparency in the design of hierarchically structured systems},
  author={David Lorge Parnas and Daniel P. Siewiorek},
  journal={Commun. ACM},
  year={1975},
  volume={18},
  pages={401-408}
}
This paper deals with the design of hierarchically structured programming systems. It develops a method for evaluating the cost of requiring programmers to work with an abstraction of a real machine. A number of examples from hardware and software are given as illustrations of the method. 

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