Use of recessive homozygous genotypes to assess genetic control of kernel bitterness in almond

@article{Dicenta2006UseOR,
  title={Use of recessive homozygous genotypes to assess genetic control of kernel bitterness in almond},
  author={Federico Dicenta and Encarnaci{\'o}n Ortega and Pedro Mart{\'i}nez-G{\'o}mez},
  journal={Euphytica},
  year={2006},
  volume={153},
  pages={221-225}
}
Bitter flavour of the almond kernel is due to the cyanoglucoside amygdalin and has been the first characteristic considered in breeding programmes. In such programmes, the seedlings from sweet-kernelled parents were used to study the transmission of bitterness, which was shown to be a monogenic characteristic, the sweet flavour being dominant. The aim of this work was to investigate more deeply the inheritance of bitterness in almond, by studying for 2 consecutive years the bitter flavour in… 
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Molecular markers for kernel bitterness in almond
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Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype
Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an
Chemical Markers to Distinguish the Homo- and Heterozygous Bitter Genotype in Sweet Almond Kernels
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This study evidenced the association between sweet almonds’ genotype and some volatile metabolites, in particular benzaldehyde, and provided for the first time chemical markers to discriminate between homo- and heterozygous sweet almond genotypes and a multivariate approach based on independent variables was developed to increase the reliability of almond classification.
β-Glucosidase activity in almond seeds.
Bitterness in Almonds 1(C)(OA)
Bitterness in almond ( Prunus dulcis ) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was
Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA]
TLDR
Combined data show that in the bitter genotypes, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, Amygdalin formation is prevented because thePrunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the teGument.
Synteny-Based Development of CAPS Markers Linked to the Sweet kernel LOCUS, Controlling Amygdalin Accumulation in Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb)
TLDR
This study exploited sequence similarity and synteny between the genomes of almond and peach to identify cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers linked to the Sk locus, highlighting a set of codominant markers useful for early selection of sweet kernel genotypes, an aspect of primary importance in almond breeding.
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