Use of pulsed energy delivery to minimize tissue injury resulting from carbon dioxide laser irradiation of cardiovascular tissues.


The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser has been utilized for preliminary intraoperative cardiovascular applications, including coronary endarterectomy and ventricular endocardiectomy. CO2 lasers used for these applications have been operated in the continuous wave, chopped or pulsed mode at low peak powers. To evaluate the extent of boundary tissue injury… (More)


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