Use of experimenter-given cues in dogs

  title={Use of experimenter-given cues in dogs},
  author={{\'A}. Mikl{\"o}si and R. Polg{\'a}rdi and J{\'o}zsef Top{\'a}l and Vilmos Cs{\'a}nyi},
  journal={Animal Cognition},
Abstract Since the observations of O. Pfungst the use of human-provided cues by animals has been well-known in the behavioural sciences (“Clever Hans effect”). It has recently been shown that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are unable to use the direction of gazing by the experimenter as a cue for finding food, although after some training they learned to respond to pointing by hand. Direction of gaze is used by chimpanzees, however. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are believed to be sensitive to human… 
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Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
The visual perspective-taking ability of 4 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was investigated and results are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzees are capable of modeling the visual perspectives of others.
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The hypothesis that chimpanzees (like 18-month-old human infants) are capable of determining the specific location in space behind them into which another looks is supported, and extensive commonality in the behavioural manifestations of gaze-following in the two species is suggested.
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