Use of bidirectional current stress for in depth analysis of electromigration mechanism

@article{Doyen2008UseOB,
  title={Use of bidirectional current stress for in depth analysis of electromigration mechanism},
  author={Laurent Doyen and Lucile Arnaud and X. Federspiel and Peter Waltz and Yves Wouters},
  journal={2008 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium},
  year={2008},
  pages={681-682}
}
Electromigration under bidirectional current is studied on dual damascene copper interconnects for the 65 nm node. Physical analyses confirm void location a both ends of the line and copper transport over long distance. Resistance evolution was studied and correlated to void healing/growth kinetics. Finally, we show the interest of bidirectional tests to study multimodal failure mode. 
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