Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials

@article{Vivekananthan2003UseOA,
  title={Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials},
  author={Deepak P. Vivekananthan and Marc S. Penn and Shelly K. Sapp and Amy P Hsu and Eric J. Topol},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2003},
  volume={361},
  pages={2017-2023}
}
Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease
TLDR
There is good evidence that vitamin E supplementation does not beneficially or adversely affect cardiovascular outcomes.
β-Carotene Supplementation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
TLDR
The evidence of this study demonstrated that β-carotene supplementation had no beneficial effects on CVD incidence and potential harmful effects onCVD mortality, and cigarettes smoking was shown to be a risk behavior associated with increased cardiovascular incidence and mortality in the β- carotene intervention group.
Vitamin Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease
TLDR
Data do not support the hypothesized cardioprotective effect of supplemental vitamin A, and there is a suggestion of toxicity with higher doses, and careful consideration is needed prior to prescribing or condoning supplemental vitamin use for the prevention or treatment of CVD.
Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
TLDR
The meta-analysis showed no evidence of a protective effect of antioxidant or B vitamin supplements on the progression of atherosclerosis, thus providing a mechanistic explanation for their lack of effect on clinical cardiovascular events.
Antioxidant vitamins intake and the risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies
  • Z. Ye, Honglin Song
  • Medicine
    European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology
  • 2008
TLDR
A meta-analysis of cohort studies to examine the relations between antioxidant vitamins and CHD risk suggests that an increase in dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins has encouraging prospects for possible CHD prevention.
Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
TLDR
There is no evidence to support the use of vitamin and antioxidant supplements for prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Effect of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplementation on Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
TLDR
Overall, antioxidant vitamin supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, total death, and cardiac death.
Supplementation with vitamin E alone is associated with reduced myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.
The relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humans.
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References

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TLDR
There was no benefit or harm from beta-carotene supplementation for a limited period on the incidence of cancer and of cardiovascular disease among apparently healthy women.
Is the Oxidative Modification Hypothesis Relevant to Human Atherosclerosis?: Do the Antioxidant Trials Conducted to Date Refute the Hypothesis?
TLDR
The hypothesis that oxidative modification of LDL plays a significant role in atherogenesis in humans is not necessarily disproved by the failure of these particular clinical trials any more than a negative trial of an ineffectual antibiotic in Pneumococcal pneumonia would prove that pneumonia is not a bacterial disease.
Effect of dietary antioxidant combinations in humans. Protection of LDL by vitamin E but not by beta-carotene.
TLDR
Long-term supplementation with large doses of vitamin E alone, but not beta-carotene, conferred increased protection to LDL in in vitro assays of oxidation, supporting the hypothesis that oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to be important in mediating the atherogenicity of LDL.
Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients.
TLDR
In patients at high risk for cardiovascular events, treatment with vitamin E for a mean of 4.5 years had no apparent effect on cardiovascular outcomes and there were no significant differences in the incidence of secondary cardiovascular outcomes or in death from any cause.
Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.
TLDR
After an average of four years of supplementation, the combination of beta carotene and vitamin A had no benefit and may have had an adverse effect on the incidence of lung cancer and on the risk of death from lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and any cause in smokers and workers exposed to asbestos.
Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.
TLDR
Evidence is provided of an association between a high intake of vitamin E and a lower risk of coronary heart disease in men, and public policy recommendations with regard to the use ofitamin E supplements should await the results of additional studies.
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