RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdThe BolusCal Study was a 16-week randomized, controlled, open-label, three-arm parallel, clinical study of 51 adults with type 1 diabetes. Patients aged 18–65 years in poor metabolic control (HbA1c 8.0–10.5%) were randomized to the Control (n = 8), CarbCount (n = 21), or CarbCountABC (n = 22) arm. During a 3-h group teaching, the Control arm received FIIT education excluding carbohydrate counting. CarbCount patients were taught FIIT and how to count carbohydrates. CarbCountABC group teaching included FIIT and carbohydrate counting and patients were provided with an ABC.