Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Dental Origin-Their Potential for Anti-inflammatory and Regenerative Actions in Brain and Gut Damage
AIM to determine the whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may be used in the treatment of patients with chrOnic intestinal inflammatory diseases (IID). SUBJECTS AND METHODS Thirty-nine patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (Group 1) and 11 with Crohn's disease (CD) (Group 2) were examined. Comparative groups included 30 patients with UC (Group 2) and 10 with CD (Group 4). Two-three days before MSC administration, immunodepressants were discontinued, the dosage of corticosteroids was reduced to 15-20 mg/day, and that of aminosalicylates remained to be 2 g/day. The results were quantified using the mean values of the Rachmilewich clinical activity index, the Crohn's disease activity index and the Mayo and Gebs scales. The patients were followed up for 4-8 months. Humoral immunological indices (cytokines, autologous antibodies) were determined. Bone marrow cells were obtained from the donor sternum or iliac crest. Cultivation at the end of weeks 5-6 provided a population of allogeneic donor MSC in a quantity of (1.5-2) x 10(8) tells required for transplantation to a patient. MSC cultures were once injected intravenously in a dropwise fashion. RESULTS A statistically significant decrease in the indices of the clinical and morphological activities of an inflammatory process was noted in 39 patients with UC and in 11 patients with CD as compared with the comporison groups after MSC transplantation. Clinicomorphological remission occurred in 40 patients. Inclusion of MSC into the treatment program was ineffective in 8 patients with UC and in 2 patients with CD. The use of MSC made it possible to discontinue corticosteroids in 34 of the 50 patients with the hormone-dependent and hormone-resistant forms of UC and CD and to reduce the dose of prednisolone to 5 mg/day in 7 patients, by administering 5-aminosalicylic acid only. CONCLUSION The use of MSC may be appreciated as a new strategic direction of therapy for IID. The intravenously administered stem cells exert a potent immunomodulatory effect, reduce the activity of autoimmune inflammation, and stimulate a reparative process in the intestinal mucosa.