Use of Frog Eggs and Oocytes for the Study of Messenger RNA and its Translation in Living Cells

@article{Gurdon1971UseOF,
  title={Use of Frog Eggs and Oocytes for the Study of Messenger RNA and its Translation in Living Cells},
  author={J. B. Gurdon and Charles D. Lane and Hugh R. Woodland and G{\'e}rard Marbaix},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1971},
  volume={233},
  pages={177-182}
}
Injected frog eggs and oocytes provide a very sensitive assay system for the identification of messenger RNA and permit the study of translational control in living cells. The translation of each haemoglobin messenger RNA molecule once every 5–10 minutes for at least 24 hours makes it possible to recognize less than 1 ng of this messenger RNA. 

Injected nuclei in frog oocytes provide a living cell system for the study of transcriptional control

Human HeLa nuclei injected into Xenopus oocytes synthesise RNA continuously for up to 1 month, and some of this RNA is translated into HeLa proteins, which can be used for the study of transcriptional controls.

Translation of plant messengers in egg cells of Xenopus laevis

The results of experiments aimed at the use of this method for studying plant messenger RNA in living egg cells and oocytes of the tadpole of Xenopus laevis1–6 are described.

Collagen Synthesis in Xenopus Oocytes after Injection of Nuclear RNA of Frog Embryos

A messenger RNA fraction from polysomes of frog larvae or RNA preparations from isolated nuclei of developing frog embryos were injected into growing Xenopus laevis oocytes that were incubated with labeled proline, indicating that the injected material had promoted collagen synthesis.

Oocyte expression with injection of purified T7 RNA polymerase.

This work reports on a third expression technique that is based on the combined injection of cDNA and purified T7 RNA polymerase directly into the cytoplasm of oocytes.

Expression of Messenger RNAs Injected into Xenopus Laevis Oocytes

The genetic information carried by eukaryotic messenger RNAs can be translated to polypeptides either in cell-free protein synthesizing systems or after microinjection into living cells.

A microsystem for the extraction and in-vitro translation of mouse embryo mRNA.

A micromethod is described for the extraction of mRNA from mouse ova and its translation in a message-dependent rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and it has been possible to visualize the products from the equivalent of 12.5 eggs by SDS polyacrylamide gel fluorography.

Mouse oocytes transcribe injected Xenopus 5S RNA gene.

Transcripts produced after injection of the Xenopus 5S RNA gene into oocyte germinal vesicles of mice migrate electrophoretically with the 5S RNA marker, an indication that the gene is transcribed

Translation in Xenopus oocytes of mRNAs transcribed in vitro

One of the in vitro transcription systems that utilizes a specific promoter and the RNA polymerase from the phage SP6 of Salmonella typhimurium is described and methods used to analyze translation of these RNAs in the Xenopus oocyte are described.
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