Twenty-one patients with prior cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were evaluated by computed tomography. In eight patients who developed local pelvic recurrence, CT diagnosis was correct in seven. CT also detected distant metastasis in five patients and local pelvic abscesses in two additional patients. Our data show CT to be a more sensitive means than conventional radiologic methods including gray scale sonography in the detection of local recurrence and postoperative complications. Examples of normal postcystectomy changes in the pelvis as well as recurrent disease and surgical complications are illustrated. The pitfalls and the proper role of CT in these patients are also discussed.