Urolithiasis in a wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) population.


Renal calculi were found in eight of 325 red deer kidney pairs examined, all eight were females and only one was infected in both kidneys. A further three deer badly infected with urolithiasis were found by chance, two were males. Examples of the calculi found are illustrated to show their range of sizes and shapes. One calculus analysed for chemical… (More)


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