Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure.

@article{Benowitz2009UrineNM,
  title={Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure.},
  author={Neal L. Benowitz and Katherine M Dains and Delia D Dempsey and B Rodr{\'i}guez Herrera and Lisa Yu and Peyton Jacob},
  journal={Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco},
  year={2009},
  volume={11 8},
  pages={954-60}
}
INTRODUCTION Plasma or saliva cotinine concentrations are used widely as biomarkers of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and have been associated with the risk of SHS-related disease. Concentrations of cotinine and other nicotine metabolites are considerably higher in urine than in plasma or saliva, making chemical analysis easier. In addition, urine is often more convenient to collect in some SHS exposure studies. The optimal use of nicotine metabolites in urine, singly or in combination, with… CONTINUE READING
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