Urine drug-testing tampering approaches: Turkish probationers

  title={Urine drug-testing tampering approaches: Turkish probationers},
  author={Melike Aydoğdu and Serap Annette Akg{\"u}r},
  journal={Medicine, Science and the Law},
  pages={6 - 13}
The growing numbers of individual and social problems associated with drug abuse necessitate new approaches in drug-testing systems. Equally, drug abusers may attempt to invalidate drug testing using different methods such as adulteration, dilution and substitution. This study aims to investigate tampering methods commonly used by Turkish substance-using probationers and evaluate their effects on toxicological drug-testing results. Initially, probationer urinary screening test results and… 
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