Urinary trypsin inhibitor has attracted attention as an index of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In this study, the urine concentration of trypsin inhibitor was measured to compare the immunological insult of conventional chemotherapy and conditioning chemotherapy for bone marrow transplantation. We also investigated whether urinary trypsin inhibitor was a useful index of the complications and outcome of bone marrow transplantation. Urinary trypsin inhibitor concentration was determined before chemotherapy, on the day after finishing chemotherapy (day 0 of transplant- ation), and during recovery of the white cell count, in 17 patients (seven receiving conventional chemotherapy and 10 receiving conditioning for bone marrow transplantation). Urinary trypsin inhibitor concentrations were significantly higher after conditioning for bone marrow transplantation than after conventional chemotherapy (P < 0.001), indicating that conditioning was more invasive. After bone marrow transplantation, the incidence of severe complications and the mortality rate were higher in patients whose urinary trypsin inhibitor concentrations rose during recovery of the white cell count. Comparison of urinary trypsin inhibitor concentrations suggested that conditioning for bone marrow transplantation was more invasive than conventional chemotherapy. This study also suggested that the urine concentration of trypsin inhibitor could be useful for predicting the risk of complications and outcome of bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2001) 27, 195–199.