Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events.

@article{ODonnell2014UrinarySA,
  title={Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events.},
  author={Martin O’Donnell and Andrew Mente and Sumathy Rangarajan and Matthew J. McQueen and Xingyu Wang and Li-sheng Liu and Hou Yan and Shun Fu Lee and Prem K. Mony and Anitha Devanath and Annika Rosengren and Patricio L{\'o}pez-Jaramillo and Rafael Diaz and Alvaro Avezum and Fernando Lanas and Khalid Yusoff and Romaina Iqbal and Rafał Ilow and Noushin Mohammadifard and Sadi Gulec and Afzal Hussein Yusufali and Lanth{\'e} Kruger and Rita Yusuf and Jephat Chifamba and Conrad Kabali and Gilles R. Dagenais and Scott A. Lear and Koon K Teo and Salim Yusuf},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={2014},
  volume={371 7},
  pages={
          612-23
        }
}
BACKGROUND The optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health is controversial. METHODS We obtained morning fasting urine samples from 101,945 persons in 17 countries and estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular events. RESULTS The mean estimated sodium and potassium excretion was 4.93 g per day… 

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Population-based association between urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and its ratio with albuminuria in Chinese.

High sodium intake was shown to be associated with increased urinary albuminuria in the general Chinese adult population, supporting salt restriction for renal and cardiovascular health benefit.

Urinary potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events.

Urinary potassium excretion was not independently associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events and no associations were observed between the sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio and risk of CVD, IHD, stroke, or HF.
...

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Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events.

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