We recently demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate is a stimulating factor for the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). In this study we determined whether the urine or serum levels of indoxyl sulfate are related to the progression rate of CRF in undialyzed uremic patients. Fifty-five CRF patients with a serum creatinine of >2 mg/dl who had not been treated with an oral sorbent (AST-120) were randomly enrolled in the study. We measured the serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate, and estimated the recent progression rate of CRF as the slope of the reciprocal serum creatinine versus time (1/S-Cr-time) plot. The mean urinary amount of indoxyl sulfate in the patients was 60 mg/day. Those with indoxyl sulfate urine levels of >60 mg/day had a significantly faster progression rate of CRF than those with <60 mg/day. Especially, those patients with indoxyl sulfate urine levels of >90 mg/day had the highest CRF progression rate and those with indoxyl sulfate urine levels of <30 mg/day had the slowest CRF progression rate. Urinary indoxyl sulfate had a significantly negative correlation with the slope of the 1/S-Cr-time plot. However, the serum level of indoxyl sulfate or the ratio of serum indoxyl sulfate to creatinine was not significantly correlated with the slope of the 1/S-Cr-time plot. In conclusion, high urine levels of indoxyl sulfate are related with a rapid progression of CRF in undialyzed uremic patients. Thus, urinary indoxyl sulfate is one of the clinical factors that affect CRF progression.