Urinary cadmium levels predict lower lung function in current and former smokers: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

@article{Mannino2004UrinaryCL,
  title={Urinary cadmium levels predict lower lung function in current and former smokers: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.},
  author={David M Mannino and Fernando C Holguin and H Mollie Greves and Amanda Savage-Brown and Agn{\`e}s Stock and Robert H. Jones},
  journal={Thorax},
  year={2004},
  volume={59 3},
  pages={194-8}
}
BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to determine the relation between urinary cadmium levels and lung function in a nationally representative cohort of current, former, and never smokers in the US. Urinary cadmium levels reflect the total body burden of cadmium. METHODS The following data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analysed: urinary cadmium (adjusted for urinary creatinine), lung function, sex, race/ethnicity, age, education level, job category, body… CONTINUE READING