Urinary Biomarkers of Carcinogenic Exposure among Cigarette, Waterpipe, and Smokeless Tobacco Users and Never Users of Tobacco in the Golestan Cohort Study

@article{Etemadi2019UrinaryBO,
  title={Urinary Biomarkers of Carcinogenic Exposure among Cigarette, Waterpipe, and Smokeless Tobacco Users and Never Users of Tobacco in the Golestan Cohort Study},
  author={Arash Etemadi and Hossein Poustchi and Cindy M. Chang and Benjamin C. Blount and Antonia M Calafat and Lanqing Wang and V{\'i}ctor R. De Jes{\'u}s and Akram Pourshams and Ramin Shakeri and Meredith S. Shiels and Maki Inoue-Choi and Bridget K. Ambrose and Carol H. Christensen and Baoguang Wang and Gwen Murphy and Xiaoyun Ye and Deepak Bhandari and June Feng and Baoyun Xia and Connie S. Sosnoff and Farin Kamangar and Paul J Brennan and Paolo Boffetta and Sanford M. Dawsey and Christian C. Abnet and Reza Malekzadeh and Neal D. Freedman},
  journal={Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers \& Prevention},
  year={2019},
  volume={28},
  pages={337 - 347}
}
Background: How carcinogen exposure varies across users of different, particularly noncigarette, tobacco products remains poorly understood. Methods: We randomly selected 165 participants of the Golestan Cohort Study from northeastern Iran: 60 never users of any tobacco, 35 exclusive cigarette, 40 exclusive (78% daily) waterpipe, and 30 exclusive smokeless tobacco (nass) users. We measured concentrations of 39 biomarkers of exposure in 4 chemical classes in baseline urine samples: tobacco… 
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