Urea, a true uremic toxin: the empire strikes back.

@article{Lau2017UreaAT,
  title={Urea, a true uremic toxin: the empire strikes back.},
  author={Wei Ling Lau and Nosratola D. Vaziri},
  journal={Clinical science},
  year={2017},
  volume={131 1},
  pages={3-12}
}
Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces… CONTINUE READING
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