Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Conservation

  title={Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Conservation},
  author={Michael L. Mckinney},
  • M. Mckinney
  • Published 1 October 2002
  • Environmental Science
A the many human activities that cause habitat loss (Czech et al. 2000), urban development produces some of the greatest local extinction rates and frequently eliminates the large majority of native species (Vale and Vale 1976, Luniak 1994, Kowarik 1995, Marzluff 2001). Also, urbanization is often more lasting than other types of habitat loss. Throughout much of New England, for example, ecological succession is restoring forest habitat lost from farming and logging, whereas most urbanized… 

10 URBANIZATION , HABITAT LOSS AND BIODIVERSITY DECLINE Solution pathways to break the cycle

The interactions between urbanization with biodiversity and ecosystem services that take place defy simple generalizations. There is increasing evidence for the negative impacts of urbanization on

Restoration Ecology in an Urbanizing World

As the world becomes more urbanized, the need for ecosystem services in our population centers has become a priority. The restoration of functioning habitats within cities is being successfully

Patterns and trends in urban biodiversity and landscape design

Urbanization destroys or modifies native habitats and creates new ones with its infrastructure. Because of these changes, urban landscapes favor non-native and native species that are generalists.

Wildlife in the city: human drivers and human consequences.

The urban development process results in the removal, alteration and fragmentation of natural vegetation and environmental features, which have negatively impacted many wildlife species. With the

Plants in Urban Settings: From Patterns to Mechanisms and Ecosystem Services

More than half of the global human population is living in urban areas, and the trend towards further urbanization is strongly increasing (MEA 2005; United Nations 2008). Hence, the majority of

Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation.

  • I. Kowarik
  • Environmental Science
    Environmental pollution
  • 2011

Birds in Urban Ecosystems: Population Dynamics, Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Conservation

With the global high rate of urbanization and the rapid loss of wild habitat land, cities are now viewed as challenging ecosystems for sustaining biotic communities and rich diversity. During the

Habitat urbanization and its effects on birds

The most important components of the urban environment influencing birds’ physiology, behaviour or morphology are discussed, and several recent studies to illustrate their effects are compiled, and the results of bottom-up and top-down approach suggest that altered food availability and predation may play key roles in forming recent urban bird communities.

Impact of Urbanization on Birds

Urban habitats and landscapes are markedly different from nonurban “natural” habitats. The major difference is the transformation of the land, from natural green areas to anthropogenic structures and

Urban Mammals

There is a clear relationship between mammalian diversity and the degree of urbanization of the landscape. As urbanization increases, mammalian diversity is lost. The loss of species in urban areas



Worldwide urbanization and its effects on birds

Human populations are increasing and becoming predominantly urban. Resulting land cover changes reduce, perforate, isolate, and degrade bird habitat on local and global scales. I review: 1)

Habitat fragmentation and vertebrate species richness in an urban environment

Mammalian species richness within patches decreased with increasing percentage of barren ground per patch, with proximity to buildings, and with patchiness in the total vegetation cover, but increased with increasing density of vegetation in the layer 21-50 cm above ground.

Urban ecological systems: linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas

Ecological studies of terrestrial urban systems have been approached along several kinds of contrasts: ecology in as opposed to ecology of cities; biogeochemical compared to organismal perspectives,

Effects of Urbanization on Avian Community Organization

-The avian community of a mature residential area was studied and compared with an undisturbed climax beech-maple forest. Urbanization was presumed to be responsible for decreasing species richness

Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system

  • K. CrooksMichael E. Soulé
  • Environmental Science
  • 1999
It appears that the decline and disappearance of the coyote, in conjunction with the effects of habitat fragmentation, affect the distribution and abundance of smaller carnivores and the persistence of their avian prey.

Predation on artificial bird nests along an urban gradient: predatory risk or relaxation in urban environments?

Urbanization - the anthropogenic conversion of natural ecosystems into human-dominated ecosystems - has occurred on global scales. The human-dominated landscape presents particular challenges to

Eighteen years of herbaceous layer recovery of a recreation area in a mesic forest.

This study shows that with little active management or restoration, species diversity increased as exotic species abundance declined and mesic forest species increased, and suggests that given enough time after discontinuation of high impact recreational use, the vegetation will succeed to a community comparable with the surrounding flora.


Ecology of Urban Arthropods: A Review and a Call to Action

Abstract A review of the entomological literature revealed relatively few general studies on arthropods in urban environments, excluding those in the context of pest control or epidemiology, and all