Urban environment and psychiatric disorders: a review of the neuroscience and biology.

@article{CostaeSilva2019UrbanEA,
  title={Urban environment and psychiatric disorders: a review of the neuroscience and biology.},
  author={Jorge Alberto Costa e Silva and Ricardo Ewbank Steffen},
  journal={Metabolism: clinical and experimental},
  year={2019},
  volume={100S},
  pages={
          153940
        }
}
Urbanization and emerging mental health issues
TLDR
A narrative mini-review is based on a literature search conducted through PubMed and EMBASE of articles published on the issue of urban mental health based on emerging evidences about the association between urbanization and mental health issues.
Air Pollution: an environmental risk factor for psychiatric illness?
TLDR
Findings suggest that areas with higher levels of air pollution were associated with increased rates of several mental illnesses, with bipolar disorder showing a particularly strong association in the US data.
Effects of extreme precipitation on hospitalization risk and disease burden of schizophrenia in urban and rural Lu’an, China, from 2010 to 2019
TLDR
EP exerted more acute effects on schizophrenia living in rural areas than those in urban areas in the cold season, and patients who are male, aged ≤ 39 years or less, and living inurban areas are a priority for future warnings.
Air Pollution and Central Nervous System Disease: A Review of the Impact of Fine Particulate Matter on Neurological Disorders
TLDR
It is necessary to study the air pollution–CNS disease connection with particular care and commitment, and the epidemiological and experimental study of the association between exposure to air pollution and CNS damage is critical to public health and quality of life.
Treatment patterns and appropriateness of antipsychotic prescriptions in patients with schizophrenia
TLDR
Overall, a high level of inappropriateness in antipsychotic prescriptions was observed, and greater adherence to guidelines could maximize the benefits of antipsychotics medications while minimizing risk of adverse effects.
Modern environmental and lifestyle risk factors, oxidative stress, perturbed epigenetic processes, and increasing incidence of neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative and neurological disorders
TLDR
It is pointed out that each of these can be associated with perturbed oxidative and epigenetic processes, and the onset of various diseases, including neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and neurological disorders, with a worldwide increasing prevalence.
Repeated exposure to chlorpyrifos is associated with a dose-dependent chronic neurobehavioral deficit in adult rats
TLDR
It is speculated that both cholinergic and non-cholinergic mechanisms could play a role in the development of chronic OP-related depressive outcomes and the proposed CPF exposure paradigm could provide an ideal model to further study molecular mechanisms underlying cause and effect relationships between environmental OP exposures.
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It is shown that urban upbringing and city living have dissociable impacts on social evaluative stress processing in humans, and distinct neural mechanisms for an established environmental risk factor are identified.
Cities and Mental Health.
TLDR
This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers, and insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors are warranted.
Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis
TLDR
It is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence of schizophrenia, and evidence suggests the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area‐level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained.
Urbanicity during upbringing and bipolar affective disorders in Denmark.
TLDR
No evidence of a dose-response relationship between urbanicity at birth (and during upbringing) and the risk of bipolar affective disorders in Denmark is found, but there is some evidence that the diagnostic practices used in Aarhus differed from the rest of Denmark.
The environment and schizophrenia
TLDR
Although heritability is often emphasized, onset is associated with environmental factors such as early life adversity, growing up in an urban environment, minority group position and cannabis use, suggesting that exposure may have an impact on the developing ‘social’ brain during sensitive periods.
Meta-analysis of the association of urbanicity with schizophrenia.
TLDR
A linear association was observed between the logarithm of the odds ofrisk for schizophrenia and urbanicity and the risk for schizophrenia at the most urban environment was estimated to be 2.37 times higher than in the most rural environment.
Default Mode Network Connectivity as a Function of Familial and Environmental Risk for Psychotic Disorder
TLDR
Increased functional connectivity in individuals with (increased risk for) psychotic disorder may reflect trait-related network alterations.
Neuroscience and the future for mental health?
  • N. Rose
  • Psychology
    Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
  • 2015
TLDR
This editorial will suggest that this triple crisis of diagnosis, explanation and therapeutics arises from the dominant reductionist approaches to the role of neurobiology in psychiatry that priorities the analysis of brain mechanisms at the expense of an understanding of the whole living organism in its milieu.
Evidence of a dose-response relationship between urbanicity during upbringing and schizophrenia risk.
TLDR
Continuous, or repeated, exposures during upbringing that occur more frequently in urbanized areas may be responsible for the association between urbanization and schizophrenia risk.
Prevalence of Depression in the Community from 30 Countries between 1994 and 2014
TLDR
A random-effects model meta-analysis allows benchmarking of the prevalence of depression during the era when online health information emerged, facilitating future comparisons.
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