Upwash exploitation and downwash avoidance by flap phasing in ibis formation flight

@article{Portugal2014UpwashEA,
  title={Upwash exploitation and downwash avoidance by flap phasing in ibis formation flight},
  author={Steven J. Portugal and Tatjana Y. Hubel and Johannes Fritz and S. Heese and Daniela Trobe and Bernhard Voelkl and Stephen Hailes and Alan M. Wilson and James R. Usherwood},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2014},
  volume={505},
  pages={399-402}
}
Many species travel in highly organized groups. The most quoted function of these configurations is to reduce energy expenditure and enhance locomotor performance of individuals in the assemblage. The distinctive V formation of bird flocks has long intrigued researchers and continues to attract both scientific and popular attention. The well-held belief is that such aggregations give an energetic benefit for those birds that are flying behind and to one side of another bird through using the… Expand
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