Upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms

@article{Krehbiel2007UpwardED,
  title={Upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms},
  author={Paul R. Krehbiel and Jeremy A. Riousset and Victor P. Pasko and Ronald J. Thomas and William Rison and Mark A. Stanley and Harald E. Edens},
  journal={Nature Geoscience},
  year={2007},
  volume={1},
  pages={233-237}
}
Blue jets, gigantic jets, cloud-to-cloud discharges and cloud-to-ground lightning are all electrical discharges from thunderclouds. An analysis of numerical simulations and observations of these phenomena places them all in a unifying framework. Thunderstorms occasionally produce upward discharges, called blue jets and gigantic jets, that propagate out of the storm top towards or up to the ionosphere1,2,3,4. Whereas the various types of intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning are reasonably… 
Thunderstorm charge structures producing gigantic jets
Gigantic jets are atmospheric electrical discharges that propagate from the top of thunderclouds to the lower ionosphere. They begin as lightning leaders inside the thundercloud, and the thundercloud
Observation of the onset of a blue jet into the stratosphere.
Blue jets are lightning-like, atmospheric electric discharges of several hundred millisecond duration that fan into cones as they propagate from the top of thunderclouds into the stratosphere1. They
Thunderstorm clouds may discharge directly to the ionosphere in spectacular luminous jets – the largest electric discharges of our planet
[1] Thunderstorm clouds may discharge directly to the ionosphere in spectacular luminous jets – the largest electric discharges of our planet. The properties of these “giants,” such as their
Upward electrical discharges observed above Tropical Depression Dorian
TLDR
Close-distance observation of seven upward discharges from thunderstorms including one starter, two jets and four gigantic jets above Tropical Depression Dorian indicates that all events are of negative polarity, suggesting they are initiated in the same thundercloud charge region.
Meteorological and Electrical Conditions of Two Mid‐latitude Thunderstorms Producing Blue Discharges
Blue discharges are one type of rarely observed upward discharge emerging from the top of thunderstorms. The favorable meteorological conditions and charge structures needed to produce this marvelous
Upward propagation of gigantic jets revealed by 3D radio and optical mapping.
Occasionally, lightning will exit the top of a thunderstorm and connect to the lower edge of space, forming a gigantic jet. Here, we report on observations of a negative gigantic jet that transferred
Observations of Blue Corona Discharges in Thunderclouds
Blue electric streamer discharges in the upper reaches of thunderclouds are observed as flashes of 337.0 nm (blue) with faint or no emissions of 777.4 nm (red). Analyzing 3 years of measurements by
Gigantic jet discharges evolve stepwise through the middle atmosphere
TLDR
The first such images are reported, showing a step-wise evolution of gigantic jets during their rising phase, as magnetic field signals tracking the charge transfer and optical Geostationary Lightning Mapper data are matched unambiguously to the precisely timed final jump process in a gigantic jet.
Profuse activity of blue electrical discharges at the tops of thunderstorms
Thunderstorm clouds may reach the lower stratosphere, affecting the exchange of greenhouse gases between the troposphere and stratosphere. This region of the atmosphere is difficult to access
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