Upward and onward: high-society American women eluded the antebellum puzzle.

@article{Sunder2011UpwardAO,
  title={Upward and onward: high-society American women eluded the antebellum puzzle.},
  author={M. Shyam Sunder},
  journal={Economics and human biology},
  year={2011},
  volume={9 2},
  pages={165-71}
}
We analyze archival evidence on the physical stature of 19th-century female US passport applicants. Heights in this group increased markedly at a time when the rest of the population was becoming shorter. While diseases may have affected the physical stature of everyone in the society, the fact that the height of elite women did not decline (and even increased) suggests that their families were wealthy enough to shield them completely from rising price of nutrients. 

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