Uptake and Processing of the Cytolethal Distending Toxin by Mammalian Cells


The cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) is a heterotrimeric holotoxin produced by a diverse group of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. The Cdts expressed by the members of this group comprise a subclass of the AB toxin superfamily. Some AB toxins have hijacked the retrograde transport pathway, carried out by the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), to translocate to cytosolic targets. Those toxins have been used as tools to decipher the roles of the Golgi and ER in intracellular transport and to develop medically useful delivery reagents. In comparison to the other AB toxins, the Cdt exhibits unique properties, such as translocation to the nucleus, that present specific challenges in understanding the precise molecular details of the trafficking pathway in mammalian cells. The purpose of this review is to present current information about the mechanisms of uptake and translocation of the Cdt in relation to standard concepts of endocytosis and retrograde transport. Studies of the Cdt intoxication process to date have led to the discovery of new translocation pathways and components and most likely will continue to reveal unknown features about the mechanisms by which bacterial proteins target the mammalian cell nucleus. Insight gained from these studies has the potential to contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

DOI: 10.3390/toxins6113098

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@inproceedings{Dirienzo2014UptakeAP, title={Uptake and Processing of the Cytolethal Distending Toxin by Mammalian Cells}, author={J M Dirienzo}, booktitle={Toxins}, year={2014} }