Upper limits on the isotropic gravitational-wave background from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo’s third observing run

@article{Collaboration2021UpperLO,
  title={Upper limits on the isotropic gravitational-wave background from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo’s third observing run},
  author={The Ligo Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration and T. M. C. Abbott and Thomas Abbott and Sheelu Abraham and Fausto Acernese and Kendall Ackley and Arthur D. Adams and Carl Adams and Rana X. Adhikari and Vaishali B. Adya and Christoph Affeldt and Deepali Agarwal and Michalis Agathos and Kazuhiro Agatsuma and Nancy Aggarwal and Odylio D. Aguiar and Lloyd Paul Aiello and Anirban Ain and Tomotada Akutsu and K. M. Aleman and Gabrielle Allen and Annalisa Allocca and Paul A Altin and A. Amato and Shreya Anand and Alena Ananyeva and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and Masaki Ando and S. V. Angelova and Stefano Ansoldi and Javier Mauricio Antelis and Sarah Antier and Stephen Appert and Koya Arai and Koji Arai and Yasuo Arai and Sakae Araki and Akito Araya and M. C. Araya and Joseph S. Areeda and M Ar{\`e}ne and Naoki Aritomi and Nicolas Arnaud and S. M. Aronson and Hideki Asada and Yasmeen Asali and Gregory Ashton and Yoichi Aso and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and F Aubin and Peter Aufmuth and K. AultONeal and Christopher C. Austin and Stanislav Babak and Francesca Badaracco and M. K. M. Bader and S Bae and Y. Bae and A. M. Baer and Stefano Bagnasco and Y. Bai and Luca Baiotti and Jonathon T. Baird and R Bajpai and M. S. Ball and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and Mariska M ter Bals and A. Balsamo and Gr{\'e}gory Baltus and Sharan Banagiri and Deepak N. Bankar and Ravindra Sopan Bankar and J. C. B. Barayoga and Claudio Barbieri and Barry C. Barish and Daniel H. N. Barker and P. Barneo and Samuel Barnum and Fabrizio Barone and B. W. Barr and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and D{\'a}niel Barta and Jms Bartlett and Mark Andrew Barton and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and Andrea Basti and Mateusz Bawaj and Joseph Bayley and Amanda Baylor and Marco Bazzan and Bence B'ecsy and Vijay Bedakihale and Michał Bejger and I. Belahcene and V. Benedetto and Deeksha Beniwal and Michael G. Benjamin and T. F. Bennett and Joe Bentley and M. BenYaala and Fabio Bergamin and B. K. Berger and Sebastiano Bernuzzi and Diego Bersanetti and Alessandro Bertolini and Joe Betzwieser and R. Bhandare and A. V. Bhandari and Dripta Bhattacharjee and Shubhagata Bhaumik and J. Bidler and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and Ross Birney and Ofek Birnholtz and S{\'e}bastien Biscans and M. Bischi and Sylvia Biscoveanu and A. Bisht and Bhaskar Biswas and Massimiliano Bitossi and M. A. Bizouard and J. K. Blackburn and Jonathan Blackman and Carl Blair and David G Blair and R. M. Blair and Fabrizio Bobba and Nina Bode and Michel Boer and Gilles Bogaert and M. Boldrini and F. Bondu and Edgard Bonilla and R. Bonnand and Phillip Booker and Boris A. Boom and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Nirban Bose and Suvadeep Bose and Vladimir Bossilkov and Vincent Boudart and Yann Bouffanais and Aaron T. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Patrick R. Brady and Alyssa Bramley and A. Branch and Marica Branchesi and James E. Brau and Matteo Breschi and Tristan Briant and Joseph Briggs and A. Brillet and Martin Brinkmann and Patrick Brockill and A. F. Brooks and Jared Brooks and D. D. Brown and Sharon Brunett and Giacomo Bruno and Robert Jeffrey Bruntz and J. Bryant and A. Buikema and Tomasz Bulik and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and Riccardo Buscicchio and D. Buskulic and Robert L. Byer and Laura Cadonati and M. Caesar and Gianpietro Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and H. W. Cain and Juan Calder{\'o}n Bustillo and J. D. Callaghan and Thomas A. Callister and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and Maurizio Canepa and M. Cannavacciuolo and Kipp C. Cannon and H. Cao and J. Cao and Z. Cao and E. Capocasa and E. Capote and Giovanni Carapella and Franco Carbognani and Julian B. Carlin and Matthew Carney and Massimo Carpinelli and Gregorio Carullo and Tessa Carver and J. Casanueva Diaz and Claudio Casentini and Giuseppe Castaldi and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Pablo Cerd'a-Dur'an and Elisa Cesarini and Walid Chaibi and Kabir Chakravarti and Brittany Champion and Chiwai Chan and C. L. Chan and C. L. Chan and Man Leong Chan and Koustav Chandra and P. Chanial and S. Chao and Philip R. Charlton and Eve A. Chase and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and Debarati Chatterjee and M. Chaturvedi and A. D. Chen and C. Chen and H. Y. Chen and J. Chen and K. Chen and X. Chen and Y.-B. Chen and Y.-R. Chen and Z. J. Chen and H. P. Cheng and C. K. Cheong and Hay Yeung Cheung and Hanyu Chia and Francesco Chiadini and Chih Yu Chiang and Roberto Chierici and Andrea Chincarini and Maria Luisa Chiofalo and Antonino Chiummo and G. Cho and H. S. Cho and Sarah P. Choate and R. K. Choudhary and Sunil Choudhary and Nelson Christensen and Hyoungseok Chu and Qi Chu and Y-K. Chu and Sheon S Y Chua and K. W. Chung and Giacomo Ciani and Pawel Ciecielag and M. Cie'slar and M. Cifaldi and Alexei A. Ciobanu and Riccardo Ciolfi and Frank Cipriano and A Cirone and Filiberto Clara and E. N. Clark and J A Clark and Leonardo Clarke and Patrick Clearwater and S{\'e}bastien Clesse and F. Cleva and Eliana Marina Coccia and P.-F. Cohadon and David Cohen and L. Cohen and Marta Colleoni and Christophe Collette and Monica Colpi and C. M. Compton and Marcio Constancio and L Conti and Steven J. Cooper and P. Corban and Thomas R. Corbitt and Isabel Cordero-Carri'on and Silvia Corezzi and K. Rainer Corley and Neil J. Cornish and David Corre and Alessandra Corsi and Samuele Cortese and C. A. Costa and Roberto Cotesta and Michael W. Coughlin and S Coughlin and J.-P. Coulon and Stefanie Countryman and Bryce Cousins and Peter Couvares and P. B. Covas and D. M. Coward and M. J. Cowart and D. C. Coyne and Robert Coyne and Jolien D. E. Creighton and T. D. Creighton and Alex Criswell and M. Croquette and S. Gwynne Crowder and J-R. Cudell and Torrey Cullen and Andrew Cumming and R. Cummings and Elena Cuoco and M. Curylo and Tito Dal Canton and Gergely D'alya and A. Dana and L. M. DaneshgaranBajastani and Beatrice D'Angelo and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and C. Darsow-Fromm and Abhigyan Dasgupta and Laurence Elise Helene Datrier and Vincenzino Dattilo and Itishri Dave and M. Davier and G. S. Davies and Derek Davis and E J Daw and R. Dean and Daniel B. DeBra and M S Deenadayalan and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Martina de Laurentis and Samuel Del'eglise and V. Del Favero and Federico De Lillo and N. De Lillo and Walter del Pozzo and Lindsay DeMarchi and F. De Matteis and V D’Emilio and N. Demos and Thomas Dent and Antoine Depasse and Roberto De Pietri and Rosario De Rosa and Camilla de Rossi and Riccardo DeSalvo and Robert de Simone and Sanjeev V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D'iaz and M. Diaz-Ortiz and Nicholas Didio and Tim Dietrich and L. Di Fiore and C. Di Fronzo and Cinzia Di Giorgio and Fabrizio Di Giovanni and Tristano Di Girolamo and Alberto Di Lieto and B. Ding and Sibilla Di Pace and I. Di Palma and Francesco Di Renzo and Atul K. Divakarla and Alexander Dmitriev and Zoheyr Doctor and L D’Onofrio and Frederick J. Donovan and K L Dooley and Suresh Doravari and Iain Dorrington and M. Drago and J C Driggers and Yonat Drori and Zhihui Du and J. G. Ducoin and Peter Dupej and Ofelia Durante and Domenico D'urso and P. A. Duverne and Irina Dvorkin and Sheila E. Dwyer and Paul J. Easter and Michael J. Ebersold and G. Eddolls and B Edelman and Tega Boro Edo and O. Edy and Anamaria Effler and Satoshi Eguchi and Jan Eichholz and Stephen S. Eikenberry and Markus Eisenmann and Robert A. Eisenstein and Aldo Ejlli and Yutaro Enomoto and Luciano de Errico and Reed Essick and H. Estell'es and D Estevez and Zachariah B. Etienne and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Thomas M. Evans and Becca Ewing and V Fafone and H. Fair and Stephen Fairhurst and X. Fan and A. M. Farah and Stefania Farinon and Benjamin Farr and Will M. Farr and Nicholas Farrow and Edward Fauchon-Jones and Marc Favata and Maxime Fays and Mariana A. Fazio and Jon R. Feicht and Martin M. Fejer and Felix Y. Feng and Edit Fenyvesi and Deborah Ferguson and {\'A}lvaro Fern{\'a}ndez-Galiana and I. Ferrante and T. A. Ferreira and Francesco Fidecaro and Przemysław Figura and Irene Fiori and Maya Fishbach and Rebecca Fisher and Jason Fishner and Rosalba Fittipaldi and Vincenzo Fiumara and R. Flaminio and Erik Floden and Eric B. Flynn and Heather Fong and Jos{\'e} A. Font and Bartosz Fornal and P W F Forsyth and Alexander Franke and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Clayton Frederick and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and P. Fritschel and Valery Victor Frolov and Gabriele Gaetano Fronz'e and Yoshinori Fujii and Yuta Fujikawa and M. Fukunaga and M. Fukushima and P. J. Fulda and Matthew Fyffe and Hunter Gabbard and Bhooshan Gadre and Sebastian M. Gaebel and Jonathan R. Gair and Joseph Gais and Shanika Galaudage and Rossella Gamba and D. Ganapathy and A. Ganguly and D. Gao and Sampada Gaonkar and B Garaventa and C. Garc'ia-N'unez and Cecilio Garc'ia-Quir'os and F. Garufi and Bubba Gateley and Sergio Del Gaudio and V. Gayathri and Guiguo Ge and Gianluca Gemme and A. Gennai and Jimin George and L'aszl'o 'A. Gergely and P. Gewecke and Sudarshan Ghonge and Abhirup Ghosh and Archisman Ghosh and Shaon Ghosh and Shrobana Ghosh and Sourath Ghosh and Bruno Giacomazzo and L Giacoppo and J. A. Giaime and Krystal Giardina and Desmond Gibson and C. Gier and Matthew Giesler and Pulak Ranjan Giri and Francesca Gissi and Jennifer Glanzer and A. E. Gleckl and Patrick Godwin and E Goetz and Ryan P. Goetz and N. Gohlke and Boris Goncharov and Gabriela Gonz'alez and A. Gopakumar and Matthieu Gosselin and R. Gouaty and B. Grace and Aniello Grado and Massimo Granata and Veronica Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and Philippe Grassia and C. Gray and Richard Carl Gray and Giuseppe Greco and Andrew Green and R Green and A M Gretarsson and E. M. Gretarsson and D. Griffith and W. Griffiths and H. L. Griggs and Gianluca Grignani and Andrea Grimaldi and E. W. Grimes and Stephan Grimm and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and P. Gruning and J. G. Guerrero and G. Guidi and A. R. Guimaraes and G. Guix'e and Hitesh Kumar Gulati and H.-K. Guo and Y. Guo and Anchal Gupta and Anuradha Gupta and P. Gupta and Eric K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and F. Guzm{\'a}n and S. Ha and Leila Haegel and A. Hagiwara and Sadakazu Haino and O Halim and Evan D. Hall and E. Z. Hamilton and Giles D. Hammond and W.-B. Han and Maria Haney and Jonathan Hanks and Chad Hanna and Mark Hannam and Otto A. Hannuksela and H. Hansen and Travis Hansen and James E. Hanson and Thomas Harder and Terra Hardwick and K. Haris and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and D. Hartwig and Kunihiko Hasegawa and Brynmor Haskell and R. K. Hasskew and Carl-Johan Haster and K. Hattori and K. Haughian and Hideaki Hayakawa and Kazuhiro Hayama and Fergus Hayes and James Healy and Antoine Heidmann and Matthew Heintze and Jonas Heinze and John Heinzel and H. Heitmann and Frances Hellman and P. Hello and A. F. Helmling-Cornell and Gary Hemming and Martin Hendry and Ik Siong Heng and Eric Hennes and J{\"o}rg Hennig and Margot Hennig and Francisco Vivanco and Michele Heurs and Stefan Hild and P. Hill and Yoshiaki Himemoto and Adam S. Hines and Yuta Hiranuma and Naoatsu Hirata and Eiichi Hirose and Sven Hochheim and David Jonathan Hofman and J. N. Hohmann and A. Miguel Holgado and Nathan A. Holland and I. J. Hollows and Zachary J Holmes and K. Holt and Daniel E. Holz and Zhang Hong and Philip F. Hopkins and James Hough and E J Howell and Charlie Hoy and David Hoyland and Ali Hreibi and B-H. Hsieh and Y. H. Hsu and G-Z. Huang and H-Y. Huang and P. Huang and Y.-C. Huang and Y.-J. Huang and Y-W Huang and M. T. Hubner and A. D. Huddart and Eliu A. Huerta and Barbara J. Hughey and David C. Y. Hui and V. Hui and Sascha Husa and S. H. Huttner and Rachael Huxford and T. Huynh--Dinh and Satoshi Ide and Bartosz Idzkowski and Alberto Iess and Bungo Ikenoue and Suyanto Imam and Kohei Inayoshi and Henri Inchauspe and Craig Ingram and Yuki Inoue and Giuseppe Intini and Kunihito Ioka and Maximiliano Isi and Katharina-Sophie Isleif and K. Ito and Yousuke Itoh and Bala R. Iyer and Keisuke Izumi and V. JaberianHamedan and T. Jacqmin and S. J. Jadhav and Sujata Pavan Jadhav and A L James and A. Z. Jan and Karan Jani and Kamiel Janssens and N. N. Janthalur and Piotr Jaranowski and Dishen Jariwala and Rafel Jaume and Alexander C. Jenkins and C. Jeon and Mariana Jeunon and W. Jia and J. Jiang and H.-B. Jin and G. R. Johns and A. W. Jones and D. I. Jones and J. Daniel Jones and P. G. Jones and R. Jones and R. J. G. Jonker and Li Ju and K Jung and Piljong Jung and Jonas Junker and Kenji Kaihotsu and Takaaki Kajita and Mitsuru Kakizaki and Chinmay Kalaghatgi and Vicky Kalogera and Brittany L. Kamai and Masahiro Kamiizumi and N Kanda and Shivaraj Kandhasamy and G. Kang and Jonah B. Kanner and Y. Kao and Shasvath J. Kapadia and D. P. Kapasi and Christos Karathanasis and Sudarshan Karki and Rahul Kashyap and Marie Kasprzack and Wolfgang Kastaun and Stavros Katsanevas and Erik Katsavounidis and William G. Katzman and Tejinder Kaur and Keita Kawabe and Kyohei Kawaguchi and Nobuyuki Kawai and T. Kawasaki and Fabien K'ef'elian and David Keitel and Joey Shapiro Key and Sovit M. Khadka and Farid Ya. Khalili and I Khan and S. A. Khan and E. A. Khazanov and Nandita Khetan and Mohammad Khursheed and N Kijbunchoo and C. Kim and J. C. Kim and J. H. Kim and K. Kim and W. S. Kim and Y.-M. Kim and C. Kimball and Nobuhiro Kimura and P. J. King and Maya M. Kinley-Hanlon and R Kirchhoff and J. S. Kissel and Naoki Kita and Hideaki Kitazawa and L. Kleybolte and Sergey Klimenko and Alan M. Knee and Timothy D. J. Knowles and Eugene A. Knyazev and Patrick M. Koch and Gideon Koekoek and Yasufumi Kojima and Keiko Kokeyama and Soumen Koley and P. Kolitsidou and Machiel Kolstein and Kentaro Komori and V. T. Kondrashov and Albert K. H. Kong and Antonios Kontos and Nicola Koper and Mikhail Korobko and Kei Kotake and Manoj Kovalam and Darby Kozak and C. Kozakai and Ryo Kozu and V. Kringel and N. V. Krishnendu and Andrzej Kr'olak and G. Kuehn and F. Kuei and A. Kumar and P. Kumar and Rahul Kumar and Rakesh Kumar and Jun’ya Kume and Kevin Aaron Kuns and C. Kuo and H-S. Kuo and Yasuhiro Kuromiya and Sachiko Kuroyanagi and K. Kusayanagi and K. Kwak and S. Kwang and Danny Laghi and E. Lalande and Tsz Lung Lam and Astrid Lamberts and Michael Landry and Benjamin Lane and Ryan N. Lang and Joern Christian Lange and Brian Lantz and Iuri La Rosa and A. Lartaux-Vollard and Paul D. Lasky and Michael Laxen and Albert Lazzarini and C Lazzaro and Paola Leaci and Sean Leavey and Yannick K. Lecoeuche and H. K. Lee and H. m. Lee and H. W. Lee and J. J. Lee and K. H. Lee and Ray-Kuang Lee and J. Lehmann and A. Lemaitre and Erick Leon and Matteo Leonardi and Nicolas Leroy and Nicolas Letendre and Yuri Levin and J. N. Leviton and A. K. Y. Li and B. Li and J. Li and K. J. L. Li and T. G. F. Li and X. Li and C.Y. Lin and F-K. Lin and F-L. Lin and H. L. Lin and L. C. C. Lin and Frank Linde and S. D. Linker and J. N. Linley and Tyson B. Littenberg and G. C. Liu and J Liu and K. Liu and X. K. Liu and M. Llorens-Monteagudo and Rico K. L. Lo and A. Lockwood and Michelle L.-J. Lollie and Lionel London and Alessandro Longo and Dixeena Lopez and Marco Lorenzini and Vincent Loriette and Marc Lormand and Giovanni Losurdo and James Lough and Carlos O. Lousto and Geoffrey Lovelace and Harald Luck and Diana Lumaca and Andrew Lundgren and L. W. Luo and Ronaldas Macas and Myron Macinnis and D Macleod and Ian A. O. MacMillan and A. Macquet and Ignacio Maga{\~n}a Hernandez and Fabian Maga{\~n}a-Sandoval and C. Magazz{\`u} and Ryan Magee and Riccardo Maggiore and E. Majorana and I. Maksimovic and S. Maliakal and A. Malik and Na Man and Vuk Mandic and Vanessa Mangano and J. Mango and Georgia L. Mansell and Magnus Manske and Maddalena Mantovani and Michela Mapelli and Fabio Marchesoni and Manuel Marchi{\`o} and F. Marion and Zachary Mark and Szabolcs M'arka and Zsuzsa M'arka and Charalampos Markakis and Ashot Markosyan and Alex Markowitz and Edward Maros and Antonio Marquina and Sylvain Marsat and F. Martelli and Iain W. Martin and R. M. Martin and M Mart{\'i}nez and V. A. Martinez and Katarina Martinovic and Denis Martynov and Edward J. Montgomery Marx and Hossein Masalehdan and K. O. Mason and E. Massera and A. Masserot and Thomas J. Massinger and M. Masso-Reid and S Mastrogiovanni and Andrew Matas and Maite Mateu-Lucena and F. Matichard and Mariia Matiushechkina and Nergis Mavalvala and John J. McCann and R. McCarthy and D. E. McClelland and Phoebe McClincy and Scott McCormick and Lee McCuller and Graeme McGhee and Scott C. McGuire and Connor McIsaac and Jess McIver and David J. McManus and Terry Mcrae and S. T. McWilliams and Duncan Meacher and Moritz Mehmet and Ajit Kumar Mehta and Andrew Melatos and Denyz Melchor and Greg Mendell and A Men{\'e}ndez-V{\'a}zquez and Carmen S. Menoni and R. A. Mercer and Lorenzo Mereni and Kara Merfeld and E. L. Merilh and James D. Merritt and Mourad Merzougui and Sydney Meshkov and Chris Messenger and Cody Messick and Patrick M. Meyers and Fabian Meylahn and A. Mhaske and Agnese Miani and Haixing Miao and I. Michaloliakos and Christophe Michel and Yuta Michimura and Hannah Middleton and Leonardo Milano and A. L. Miller and M Millhouse and Joseph C. Mills and Edoardo Milotti and M. C. Milovich-Goff and Olivier Minazzoli and Yury Minenkov and Norikatsu Mio and Lluis M. Mir and Alec S Mishkin and Chandra Kant Mishra and Tanmaya Mishra and Timesh Mistry and Subhasish Mitra and Vp. Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Osamu Miyakawa and Akinobu Miyamoto and Yuki Miyazaki and Kouseki Miyo and Shinji Miyoki and Geoffrey Mo and Kentaro Mogushi and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and Siddharth R. Mohite and Ignacio Molina and M. Molina-Ruiz and Myriam Mondin and M. Montani and Christopher J. Moore and Daniel Moraru and Filip Morawski and Anupreeta More and C. Moreno and Gerardo Moreno and Y. Mori and Soichiro Morisaki and Yuji Moriwaki and B. Mours and Conor M Mow-Lowry and S Mozzon and Federico Muciaccia and Arunava Mukherjee and Dipanjan Mukherjee and Soma Mukherjee and Subroto Mukherjee and Nikhil Mukund and Adam J Mullavey and Jesper Munch and E. A. M. Muniz and P. G. Murray and Riccardo Musenich and Severin Nadji and Koji Nagano and Shigeo Nagano and Alessandro Nagar and K Nakamura and Hiroyuki Nakano and Masaya Nakano and Rika Nakashima and Y. Nakayama and Ilaria Nardecchia and Tatsuya Narikawa and L. Naticchioni and B. K. Nayak and Rabindranath Nayak and Rumi Negishi and B. F. Neil and Joshua Neilson and Gijs Nelemans and T. J. N. Nelson and M. Nery and Ansel Neunzert and K. K. Y. Ng and Sebastian W. S. Ng and C. Nguyen and Phong Nguyen and T. T. Nguyen and L. Nguyen Quynh and Wei-Tou Ni and S. A. Nichols and Atsushi J. Nishizawa and Samaya M. Nissanke and F. Nocera and Minkyun Noh and Manuel Norman and Christopher E. North and Shinji Nozaki and Laura Nuttall and Jason Oberling and Brendan O'Brien and Yoshiyuki Obuchi and Joseph O'Dell and W. Ogaki and Gor Oganesyan and J J Oh and K. Oh and S. H. Oh and Masatake Ohashi and Naoko Ohishi and Masashi Ohkawa and Frank Ohme and H. Ohta and M. A. Okada and Yukio Okutani and Koki Okutomi and C. Olivetto and Ken-ichi Oohara and Ching Pin Ooi and Richard J. Oram and Brian O'reilly and R. G. Ormiston and N. D. Ormsby and Luis F. Ortega and Richard O’Shaughnessy and {\'E}amonn O’Shea and Shoichi Oshino and Serguei Ossokine and Charles Osthelder and S. Otabe and David J. Ottaway and Harry Overmier and Alexander Pace and Giulia Pagano and Michael A. Page and G. Pagliaroli and Archana Pai and Sanjay A. Pai and Jordan Palamos and O. V. Palashov and Cristiano Palomba and K. Pan and Prafulla K. Panda and Hao Pang and Peter T. H. Pang and Christopher Pankow and Francesco Pannarale and Bhasker Pant and Federico Paoletti and Angela Delli Paoli and Achille Paolone and Alessandro Parisi and J. Park and William Parker and Daniela Pascucci and A. Pasqualetti and R. Passaquieti and D. Passuello and M. Patel and Barbara Patricelli and Ethan Payne and T. C. Pechsiri and M. Pedraza and Matteo Pegoraro and Arnaud Pele and Fabi{\'a}n Erasmo Pe{\~n}a Arellano and Stephen Penn and Albino Perego and A. Pereira and T. Pereira and Carlos J. Perez and C. P'erigois and Antonio Perreca and St{\'e}phane Perries and Jeff Petermann and Danny Petterson and Harald P. Pfeiffer and K. A. Pham and Khun Sang Phukon and Ornella Juliana Piccinni and Mikhael Pichot and M. Piendibene and Francesco Piergiovanni and Lorenzo Pierini and Vincenzo Pierro and Gabriel Pillant and Federico Pilo and L. Pinard and Innocenzo M. Pinto and Brandon Piotrzkowski and Krzysztof Piotrzkowski and Marc Pirello and Matthew Pitkin and Ernesto Placidi and Wolfango Plastino and Christian M. Pluchar and R. Poggiani and E Polini and D. Y. T. Pong and S. Ponrathnam and P. Popolizio and Edward K. Porter and Jade Powell and M. Pracchia and Thierry Pradier and Atul Kumar Prajapati and Kiran Prasai and Rammohan Prasanna and Geraint Pratten and Tanner Prestegard and M. Principe and Giovanni Andrea Prodi and L Prokhorov and Paolo Prosposito and L. Prudenzi and Anna Puecher and M. Punturo and Francesco Puosi and P. Puppo and Michael Purrer and H. Qi and Volker Quetschke and Pedro Jesus Quinonez and Ryan Quitzow-James and F. J. Raab and Geert Raaijmakers and Hugh Radkins and N. Radulesco and Peter Raffai and S. X. Rail and Sendhil Raja and C. Rajan and K. E. Ramirez and Teresita Ramirez and Antoni Ramos-Buades and J. Rana and P. Rapagnani and Umakant D Rapol and B. Ratto and V Raymond and Nayyer Raza and Massimiliano Razzano and Jocelyn Read and Lowri Ann Rees and Tania Regimbau and Luca Rei and Stuart Reid and David Reitze and Phil Relton and Piero Rettegno and F. Ricci and C. J. Richardson and Jonathan W. Richardson and L. Richardson and Paul M. Ricker and Gunnar Riemenschneider and Keith Riles and M Rizzo and N. A. Robertson and Raymond Robie and Florent Robinet and Alessandro Rocchi and J. A. Rocha and S. Rodriguez and R. D. Rodriguez-Soto and Lo{\"i}c Rolland and Jameson Graef Rollins and Vincent Roma and Marco Romanelli and J. D. Romano and Rocco Romano and Chandra Romel and Alba Romero and Isobel M. Romero-Shaw and J. H. Romie and Caitlin A. Rose and D. Rosi'nska and Shawn Rosofsky and M. P. Ross and Sheila Rowan and Samuel Rowlinson and Santosh Kumar Roy and Soumen Kumar Roy and Davide Rozza and P. Ruggi and Kris Ryan and Surabhi Sachdev and Travis Sadecki and Jam Sadiq and Norichika Sago and S. Saito and Y. Saito and Kazumitsu Sakai and Y. Sakai and Mairi Sakellariadou and Yuuji Sakuno and Om Sharan Salafia and Livio Salconi and M. Saleem and Francesco Salemi and Anuradha Samajdar and E. J. Sanchez and J. M. Hern{\'a}ndez S{\'a}nchez and L. E. Sanchez and Nicolas Sanchis-Gual and Joyce Sanders and Andreu Sanuy and T. R. Saravanan and Nikhil Sarin and Beno{\^i}t Sassolas and H. Satari and S. Sato and T. Sato and O. E. S. Sauter and Richard L. Savage and V. Savant and T. Sawada and Disha Sawant and H. L. Sawant and Selim M. Sayah and Dean M. Schaetzl and Mark A. Scheel and Jacob Scheuer and Alexander Schindler-Tyka and Patricia Schmidt and Roman Schnabel and M. Schneewind and Robert M. S. Schofield and A. Schonbeck and Brian Wm. Schulte and Bernard F. Schutz and Eyal Schwartz and J. Scott and Susan M. Scott and M. Seglar-Arroyo and Edward Seidel and Takanori Sekiguchi and Yuichiro Sekiguchi and Danny Sellers and A. M. Sergeev and Anand S. Sengupta and Noah Sennett and Daniel Sentenac and Eu-gene Seo and Valeria Sequino and Yoshinta Setyawati and Thomas Shaffer and M. Selim Shahriar and Bilal Shams and Lijing Shao and Sadra Sharifi and A. S. Sharma and P. Sharma and Peter Shawhan and N. Shcheblanov and H. Shen and Shota Shibagaki and Minori Shikauchi and R. Shimizu and T. Shimoda and K. Shimode and R. Shink and Hisaaki Shinkai and T. Shishido and Ayaka Shoda and Deirdre Shoemaker and Deirdre M. Shoemaker and Kumar Shukla and S. Shyamsundar and Magdalena Sieniawska and Daniel Sigg and Leo P. Singer and D. J. Singh and N. Singh and Ayatri Singha and Alicia M. Sintes and Valeria Sipala and Vasileios Skliris and B. J. J. Slagmolen and Teresa Slaven-Blair and J. Smetana and J. R. Smith and R Smith and Surendra Nadh Somala and Kentaro Somiya and E J Son and Kanchan Soni and Siddharth Soni and Borja Sorazu and Viola Sordini and Fiodor Sorrentino and N. Sorrentino and Hajime Sotani and R. Soulard and Tarun Souradeep and Eric Sowell and V. Spagnuolo and A P Spencer and Mario Spera and A. K. Srivastava and Varun Srivastava and Kai Staats and Cosmin Stachie and Dani{\`e}le Steer and Jessica Steinlechner and S. Steinlechner and D. J. Stops and Madeline Stover and Kenneth Strain and L C Strang and Giulia Stratta and Amber Strunk and Riccardo Sturani and Al. Stuver and J. Sudbeck and S. Sudhagar and Vivishek Sudhir and R. Sugimoto and H. G. Suh and Tiffany Summerscales and H. Sun and L. Sun and Sooraj Sunil and A. Sur and Joshua Suresh and P. Sutton and Takamasa Suzuki and Toshikazu Suzuki and Bas Swinkels and Marek J. Szczepa'nczyk and Paweł Szewczyk and Matteo Tacca and Hideyuki Tagoshi and Simon C. Tait and H. Takahashi and Ryosuke Takahashi and Akiteru Takamori and Satoru Takano and Hiroki Takeda and Masanori Takeda and Colm Talbot and H. Tanaka and Kazuyuki Tanaka and Kenta Tanaka and Taiki Tanaka and Takahiro Tanaka and Andres Jorge Tanasijczuk and S Tanioka and David B. Tanner and Duo Tao and A. Tapia and E. N. Tapia San Martin and Jay D. Tasson and Souichi Telada and Rodrigo Tenorio and Lukas Terkowski and Manufacturing Test and Mirunalini Thirugnanasambandam and M. Thomas and Pieter Thomas and J. E. Thompson and S. R. Thondapu and Keith A. Thorne and Eric Thrane and Shubhanshu Tiwari and Srishti Tiwari and Vaibhav Tiwari and Karl Toland and Arthur Tolley and Takayuki Tomaru and Y. Tomigami and Tomonobu Tomura and Mauro Tonelli and Alejandro Torres-Forn'e and C. I. Torrie and Iara Tosta e Melo and Daniel Toyra and Angela Trapananti and Flavio Travasso and Gary Traylor and Maria Concetta Tringali and Aashish Tripathee and Luigi Troiano and Agata Trovato and Lucia Trozzo and R. J. Trudeau and Dung-Sheng Tsai and Dung-Sheng Tsai and Ka Wa Tsang and T. T. L. Tsang and J-S. Tsao and M. Tse and Robert Tso and Kimio Tsubono and Satoshi Tsuchida and Leo Tsukada and Daichi Tsuna and Takuya Tsutsui and Toshihiro Tsuzuki and M Turconi and Darkhan Tuyenbayev and Amit Singh Ubhi and Nami Uchikata and Takashi Uchiyama and Richard Udall and Akira Ueda and Tomoyuki Uehara and Koh Ueno and Gen Ueshima and Dennis Wayne Ugolini and C. S. Unnikrishnan and Fumihiro Uraguchi and Alexander L. Urban and Takafumi Ushiba and S. A. Usman and Andrei Utina and Henning Vahlbruch and Gabriele Vajente and Avi Vajpeyi and Guillermo Valdes and Marica Valentini and Vinaya Valsan and Niels Anton van Bakel and Martinus van Beuzekom and J. F. 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Wei and Michael Weinert and Allan J. Weinstein and Rainer Weiss and Claudia M. Weller and Felix Wellmann and Linqing Wen and Peter Wessels and Jonathan Westhouse and Karl Wette and John T. Whelan and D. D. White and Bernard Whiting and Chris Whittle and Dennis Wilken and D Williams and M J Williams and Andrew Williamson and Josh Willis and Benno Willke and D. J. Wilson and Walter Winkler and Christopher C. Wipf and Tomasz Wlodarczyk and Graham Woan and J. Woehler and J. K. Wofford and Isaac C. F. Wong and C. Wu and D. S. Wu and H. Wu and S. Wu and Daniel Wysocki and L Xiao and W-R. Xu and T. Yamada and H. Yamamoto and Kazuhiro Yamamoto and Kohei Yamamoto and T. Yamamoto and Kinuyo Yamashita and Ryo Yamazaki and F. W. Yang and L. Yang and Yang Yang and Yi Yang and Z. Yang and Min Jet Yap and D. W. Yeeles and Anjali B. Yelikar and M. Ying and K. Yokogawa and Jun’ichi Yokoyama and Takaaki Yokozawa and Andre S. Yoon and Takashi Yoshioka and Hang Yu and Haocun Yu and Hirotaka Yuzurihara and A. K. Zadro.zny and Michele Zanolin and Simon Zeidler and T. I. Zelenova and Jean Pierre Zendri and Michael Zevin and Ming-Sheng Zhan and H. Zhang and J. Zhang and L. Zhang and R. Zhang and T. X. Zhang and C Zhao and G. Zhao and Yue Zhao and Yuhang Zhao and Z. Zhou and X J Zhu and Zhigang Zhu and Michael Edward Zucker and J. G. Zweizig},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  year={2021}
}
We report results of a search for an isotropic gravitational-wave background (GWB) using data from Advanced LIGO’s and Advanced Virgo’s third observing run (O3) combined with upper limits from the earlier O1 and O2 runs. Unlike in previous observing runs in the advanced detector era, we include Virgo in the search for the GWB. The results of the search are consistent with uncorrelated noise, and therefore we place upper limits on the strength of the GWB. We find that the dimensionless energy… 

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