Upper Echelons: The Organization as a Reflection of Its Top Managers

@article{Hambrick1984UpperET,
  title={Upper Echelons: The Organization as a Reflection of Its Top Managers},
  author={Donald C. Hambrick and Phyllis A. Mason},
  journal={Academy of Management Review},
  year={1984},
  volume={9},
  pages={193-206}
}
Theorists in various fields have discussed characteristics of top managers. This paper attempts to synthesize these previously fragmented literatures around a more general “upper echelons perspective.” The theory states that organizational outcomes—strategic choices and performance levels—are partially predicted by managerial background characteristics. Propositions and methodological suggestions are included. 

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