Updating the Accounts: Global Mortality of the 1918-1920 "Spanish" Influenza Pandemic

  title={Updating the Accounts: Global Mortality of the 1918-1920 "Spanish" Influenza Pandemic},
  author={Niall Johnson and Juergen E. Mueller},
  journal={Bulletin of the History of Medicine},
  pages={105 - 115}
The influenza pandemic of 1918-20 is recognized as having generally taken place in three waves, starting in the northern spring and summer of 1918. This pattern of three waves, however, was not universal: in some locations influenza seems to have persisted into or returned in 1920. The recorded statistics of influenza morbidity and mortality are likely to be a significant understatement. Limitations of these data can include nonregistration, missing records, misdiagnosis, and nonmedical… 

Tables from this paper

Verification of the Overestimation of the "Deaths Associated with Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919, Japan" Claimed in a Demographic Study.
A recently published study claims that the records are skeptical, claiming the figure to be "an anomaly by Asian standard," and re-estimated the number to be about 2 million by its unique demographical calculation, which is not sound from the following socio-historical and statistical perspectives.
Deaths Associated with Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19, Japan
To calculate the percentage of the population who died from the pandemic, alternative prefecture-level population count data for Japan was used in combination with estimation methods for panel data that were not available to earlier demographers to resolve a major puzzle about the pand epidemic.
Spanish flu 1918-1919: Aspects of demographic implications
The usual perception of the influenza pandemic that ravaged the world throughout 1918–19 (and in a much less manner in 1920) is structured into analyzing three different waves that touched almost the
The 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in Portugal: A Regional Analysis of Death Impact
Given the geographic heterogeneity evidenced in this study, subnational sociodemographic characteristics and connectivity should be integrated in pandemic preparedness plans.
A comparative study of the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Japan, USA and UK: mortality impact and implications for pandemic planning
The study highlights important geographical variations in timing and mortality impact of historical pandemics, in particular between the Eastern and Western hemispheres, and may aid in planning for a future pandemic.
Preparing for Pandemic Influenza: The Global 1918 Influenza Pandemic and the Role of World Historical Information
It is argued that preparation for pandemic influenza is now a security issue, and that historical studies need to be organized on a more systematic and global level to prepare a thorough picture of the 1918 pandemic, in order to anticipate the possible character of any future infections.
The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.
  • A. Trilla, G. Trilla, Carolyn Daer
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2008
Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.
Mortality From the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919: The Case of India
The new estimates suggest that for the districts included in the sample, mortality was at most 13.88 million, compared with 17.21 million when calculated using the assumptions of Davis (1951), concluding that Davis’ influential estimate of mortality from influenza in British India is overstated by at least 24%.
Impact of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Coastal Kenya
Preparation for the next pandemic requires continued improvement in surveillance, education about influenza vaccines, and efforts to prevent, detect and respond to novel influenza outbreaks.
The 1918 influenza pandemic did not accelerate tuberculosis mortality decline in early-20th century Newfoundland: Investigating historical and social explanations.
The general lack of significant decrease in TB mortality rate in Newfoundland is likely due to Newfoundland's poor nutrition and lack of centralized healthcare rather than a biological interaction between P&I and TB.


The influenza epidemic of 1918–19 in Western Samoa
century, the islands of the South Pacific were known to be peculiarly vulnerable to epidemic diseases.1 The effects of the influenza pandemic of 1918-19, which is generally ranked second only to the
The 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic— The Indian Experience
  • I. Mills
  • Economics
    The Indian economic and social history review
  • 1986
’ Jordan,’ writing in the 1920s, and using only the available uncorrected data, estimated that global deaths during the influenza pandemic totalled over 21.5 million, resulting from over one billion cases (more than half the world’s population), in a total time period of less than two years.
The Influenza Epidemic of 1918–19 in the Gold Coast
The Gold Coast (modern Ghana) was severely attacked by the influenza pandemic of 1918–19, which killed 100,000 or more people in less than six months and was almost certainly the worst short-term demographic disaster in the history of Ghana.
Professionalization in public health and the measurement of sanitary progress in nineteenth-century England and Wales.
  • G. Mooney
  • History, Medicine
    Social history of medicine : the journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
  • 1997
During the course of the nineteenth century, the Registrar-General's Office in England and Wales used crude mortality rates as a demographic barometer of the environmental conditions of towns and
Sierra Leone and World War 1.
Though Sierra Leone was not a theatre of war in 1914, World War 1 had significant consequences for the dependency. Convinced that the crisis was not just a "Whiteman's palaver," Sierra Leone
Death and disease in Southeast Asia : explorations in social, medical and demographic history
From a 'decoding' of ancient Balinese myths to the careful computation of mortality rates for the modern Philippines, these essays extend our understanding of South-east Asian history.
Die Spanische Influenza 1918/19. Einflüsse des Ersten Weltkrieges auf Ausbreitung, Krankheitsverlauf und Perzeption einer Pandemie
This reconstruction of the Spanish Influenza is based on a few selected contemporary daily newspapers and German weekly medicial journals, amended by official reports on the pandemic and corrected by historical studies and the present state of research of virology, etiology and epidemiology of this disease.
America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918
Part I. An Abrupt Introduction to Spanish Influenza: 1. The great shadow Part II. Spanish Influenza: The First Wave - Spring and Summer, 1918: 2. The advance of the influenza virus 3. Three