Update on the Biology of Transgender Identity

  title={Update on the Biology of Transgender Identity},
  author={Laura Erickson-Schroth},
  journal={Journal of Gay \& Lesbian Mental Health},
  pages={150 - 174}
Numerous studies have attempted to isolate biological factors in the development of transgender identities through research into genetics, prenatal hormone exposure, neuroanatomy, and cognitive processing. Genetic studies demonstrate that chromosomal variations are uncommon but may occur at higher rates than in the general population. Candidate genes have been investigated, with some positive results, though these have yet to be replicated. Investigations into the effects of hormone exposure on… 

2D:4D Digit Ratios in Adults with Gender Dysphoria: A Comparison to Their Unaffected Same-Sex Heterosexual Siblings, Cisgender Heterosexual Men, and Cisgender Heterosexual Women

We compared gender dysphoria (GD) patients and their same-sex siblings in terms of their 2D:4D ratios, which may reflect prenatal exposure to androgen, one of the possible etiological mechanisms



Left-handedness in male-to-female transsexuals.

Handedness provides an accessible behavioral marker that may clarify the origin of disturbed gender identity and two sources of increased sinistrality allow us to better understand prenatal and perinatal stressors.

The biology of human psychosexual differentiation

  • L. Gooren
  • Biology, Psychology
    Hormones and Behavior
  • 2006

Transsexualism ("gender identity disorder") - a CNS-limited form of intersexuality?

The emerging data are interesting, but at this time insufficient to constitute a firm basis for the recategorization of GID as a form of CNS-limited intersexuality.

Transsexualism: a review of etiology, diagnosis and treatment.

A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality

This study is the first to show a female brain structure in genetically male transsexuals and supports the hypothesis that gender identity develops as a result of an interaction between the developing brain and sex hormones.

Sex steroid-related genes and male-to-female transsexualism

A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity.

It is proposed that the sex reversal of the INAH3 in transsexual people is at least partly a marker of an early atypical sexual differentiation of the brain and that the changes in INah3 and the BSTc may belong to a complex network that may structurally and functionally be related to gender identity.