Update on the Biology of Transgender Identity

@article{EricksonSchroth2013UpdateOT,
  title={Update on the Biology of Transgender Identity},
  author={Laura Erickson-Schroth},
  journal={Journal of Gay \& Lesbian Mental Health},
  year={2013},
  volume={17},
  pages={150 - 174}
}
Numerous studies have attempted to isolate biological factors in the development of transgender identities through research into genetics, prenatal hormone exposure, neuroanatomy, and cognitive processing. Genetic studies demonstrate that chromosomal variations are uncommon but may occur at higher rates than in the general population. Candidate genes have been investigated, with some positive results, though these have yet to be replicated. Investigations into the effects of hormone exposure on… 

2D:4D Digit Ratios in Adults with Gender Dysphoria: A Comparison to Their Unaffected Same-Sex Heterosexual Siblings, Cisgender Heterosexual Men, and Cisgender Heterosexual Women

We compared gender dysphoria (GD) patients and their same-sex siblings in terms of their 2D:4D ratios, which may reflect prenatal exposure to androgen, one of the possible etiological mechanisms

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