Combination of high-sensitivity troponin I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide predicts future hospital admission for heart failure in high-risk hypertensive patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is the most common form of heart failure (HF) in older adults, and is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. Morbidity and long-term mortality in HFPEF are substantial and can be similar to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF), yet HFPEF therapy remains empirical and treatment guidelines are based primarily on expert consensus. Neurohormonal blockade has revolutionized the management of HFREF, but trials in HFPEF based on this strategy have been disappointing to date. However, many recent studies have increased knowledge about HFPEF. The concept of HFPEF has evolved from a 'cardio-centric' model to a syndrome that may involve multiple cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mechanisms. Emerging data highlight the importance of non-pharmacological management strategies and assessment of non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Animal models, epidemiological cohorts, and small human studies suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to HFPEF, potentially leading to development of new therapeutic targets.