Update on flavoring-induced lung disease

  title={Update on flavoring-induced lung disease},
  author={Van K. Holden and Stella E. Hines},
  journal={Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine},
  • V. Holden, S. Hines
  • Published 1 March 2016
  • Medicine
  • Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Purpose of review Since the initial report of bronchiolitis obliterans in microwave popcorn workers, exposures to flavoring substances have been identified in a variety of food and flavor manufacturing facilities and in the consumer market. Attempts to decrease the risk of lung disease have included the use of flavoring substitutes; however, these chemicals may cause similar injury. This article reviews recent flavoring exposures and data on the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and… 
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Recent advances in the understanding of bronchiolitis in adults
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Flavoring-related bronchiolitis obliterans
  • K. Kreiss
  • Medicine
    Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology
  • 2007
An epidemiologic approach to longitudinal medical surveillance and flavoring chemical exposures, paired with inhalation toxicology studies of flavoring components, will lay the basis for determining health-protective exposure limits for various flavoring chemicals.
Bronchiolitis obliterans and consumer exposure to butter-flavored microwave popcorn: a case series
A case series of three BFMP consumers with biopsy-confirmed BO is presented, and data relating to consumer exposures, estimate case exposures, and compare them to diacetyl-containing flavoring-exposed manufacturing workers with lung disease are reviewed.
Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.
Obliterative Bronchiolitis in Workers in a Coffee-Processing Facility — Texas, 2008–2012
Two cases of obliterative bronchiolitis identified in workers employed in a small coffee-processing facility are described, reinforcing the need for exposure evaluation in all industries in which workers are exposed to flavoring chemicals.
Respiratory morbidity in a coffee processing workplace with sentinel obliterative bronchiolitis cases.
Current workers have occupational lung morbidity associated with high diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures, which were not limited to flavoring areas, and the exposure group working in both coffee flavoring and grinding/packaging of unflavored coffee areas had significantly lower mean ratio of forced expiratory volume and percent predicted mid-expiratory flow than workers without such exposure.
Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil.
Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.
Diacetyl Exposures in the Flavor Manufacturing Industry
Monitoring of worker exposures to diacetyl at small-to medium-sized flavor facilities found results are similar to exposures measured by NIOSH in popcorn facilities where lung disease was found; however, the duration of use and frequency of use may be significantly lower.
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in popcorn production plant workers
Following sentinel case recognition, an excess of fixed airways obstruction was found among current workers in a microwave popcorn plant associated with butter flavouring exposures and clinical presentation of sentinel cases was characterised.
Occupational Lung Disease Risk and Exposure to Butter-Flavoring Chemicals after Implementation of Controls at a Microwave Popcorn Plant
Implemented controls lowered exposures to butter-flavoring chemicals and decreased lung disease risk for much of the plant workforce, and some workers with continuing potential for intermittent, short-term peak and measurable time-weighted exposures remain at risk.
Popcorn Flavoring Effects on Reactivity of Rat Airways in Vivo and in Vitro
Data suggest that the effects of 2,3-pentanedione on airway reactivity are greater than those of diacetyl, and that flavorings are airway smooth muscle relaxants and constrictors, thus indicating a complex mechanism.