Update on clinical and research application of fecal biomarkers for gastrointestinal diseases

Abstract

Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases comprise a large spectrum of clinical conditions ranging from indigestion to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and carcinomas. Endoscopy is the usual method employed to diagnose these condition. Another noninvasive way to assess and diagnose GI conditions are fecal biomarkers. Fecal biomarkers provide information regarding a specific disease process and are perhaps more acceptable to clinicians and patients alike because of their non-invasivity compared to endoscopy. Aim of this review was to evaluate the current status of the fecal biomarkers in clinical and research for in GI diseases. Multiple types of fecal biomarkers are discussed in this review including; markers to assess IBD, which are released as a results of an inflammatory insults to intestinal epithelia such as antimicrobial peptides (lactoferrin) or inflammation related proteins (calprotectin). While markers related to function of digestion are primarily related to partially digested food or mucosal proteins such as abnormal amount of fecal fat α1-antitrypsin, elastase and secretary IgA. The upcoming fecal biomarker like M2 pyruvate kinase and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin are discussed as well. Apart from above mention, the fecal biomarkers under exploration for possible clinical use in future are also discussed. These include cathelicidins, osteoprotegerin, β-glucuronidase, Eosinophil proteins, etc.

DOI: 10.4292/wjgpt.v8.i1.39

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Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Siddiqui2017UpdateOC, title={Update on clinical and research application of fecal biomarkers for gastrointestinal diseases}, author={Imran Siddiqui and Hafsa Majid and Shahab Abid}, booktitle={World journal of gastrointestinal pharmacology and therapeutics}, year={2017} }