Upconversion of rare Earth nanomaterials.

  title={Upconversion of rare Earth nanomaterials.},
  author={Ling-dong Sun and Hao Dong and Pei-zhi Zhang and Chun-Hua Yan},
  journal={Annual review of physical chemistry},
Rare earth nanomaterials, which feature long-lived intermediate energy levels and intraconfigurational 4f-4f transitions, are promising supporters for photon upconversion. Owing to their unique optical properties, rare earth upconversion nanomaterials have found applications in bioimaging, theranostics, photovoltaic devices, and photochemical reactions. Here, we review recent advances in the photon upconversion processes of these nanomaterials. We start by considering energy transfer models… CONTINUE READING