Unwanted Events and Side Effects in Cognitive Behavior Therapy

  title={Unwanted Events and Side Effects in Cognitive Behavior Therapy},
  author={Marie-Luise Schermuly-Haupt and Michael Linden and A John Rush},
  journal={Cognitive Therapy and Research},
Side effects (SEs) are negative reactions to an appropriately delivered treatment, which must be discriminated from unwanted events (UEs) or consequences of inadequate treatment. One hundred CBT therapists were interviewed for UEs and SEs in one of their current outpatients. Therapists reported 372 UEs in 98 patients and SEs in 43 patients. Most frequent were "negative wellbeing/distress" (27% of patients), "worsening of symptoms" (9%), "strains in family relations" (6%); 21% of patients… 
Frequencies and Predictors of Negative Effects in Routine Inpatient and Outpatient Psychotherapy: Two Observational Studies
Investigation of NEP and its predictors systematically across different treatment settings found that inpatients are at higher risk for the NEP than outpatients, and predictors of malpractice and unethical behavior were younger age in the outpatient setting and poor therapeutic alliance, prior negative experience with malpracticeand unethical behavior, and higher outcome expectations in the inpatient setting.
Defining and Measuring Meditation-Related Adverse Effects in Mindfulness-Based Programs
Research on the adverse effects of mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) has been sparse and hindered by methodological imprecision. The 44-item Meditation Experiences Interview (MedEx-I) was used by an
Alternative Therapies for the Treatment of Anxiety
  • E. V. Gomes
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Online Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine
  • 2020
The choice of the best therapy is crucial in the management of anxiety to ensure less response time to treatment and with less physical and mental consequences for the patient.
Safety Profile of Methylphenidate Under Long-Term Treatment in Adult ADHD Patients - Results of the COMPAS Study.
In this so far longest-running clinical trial, methylphenidate treatment was safe and well-tolerated and serious AEs were rare and without a significant group difference.
Influencing Factors and Machine Learning-Based Prediction of Side Effects in Psychotherapy
A Random Forest-based machine learning classifier could accurately predict the possible outcome of a client in psychotherapy and could help psychotherapists better predict the outcomes of psychotherapy.
Computer-Assisted Avatar-Based Treatment for Dysfunctional Beliefs in Depressive Inpatients: A Pilot Study
A randomized controlled trial with 34 patients diagnosed with major depression currently undergoing inpatient treatment at the university psychiatric hospital in Regensburg, Germany, provides an indication in favor of the effectiveness of computer-assisted, avatar-based treatment for dysfunctional beliefs (CAT-DB).
Negative effects during multicomponent group-based treatment: A multisite study.
Objective Negative effects (NEs) in group treatments remain an under-researched area. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of various types of NEs in a multicomponent group-based treatment and
Cognitive -behavioral therapy for managing depressive and anxiety symptoms after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND Post-stroke anxiety and depression can be disabling and result in impaired recovery. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated to be effective for anxiety and depression;
Preventing harm related to CBT supervision: a theoretical review and preliminary framework
  • D. Milne
  • Psychology
    The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist
  • 2020
Abstract Like any treatment, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) may have negative as well as positive outcomes, and the same is true of CBT supervision. This is recognized in definitions of


How to define, find and classify side effects in psychotherapy: from unwanted events to adverse treatment reactions.
  • M. Linden
  • Psychology
    Clinical psychology & psychotherapy
  • 2013
A procedural model on how to find, classify and evaluate negative events is described, the unwanted event to adverse treatment reaction (UE-ATR) checklist, which can be used in psychotherapy trials, quality assurance, clinical practice and training of psychotherapists.
Definition, assessment and rate of psychotherapy side effects
There are several reasons why awareness of psychotherapy side effects is limited and research on this issue is insufficient: the psychotherapist is the “producer” of treatment and therefore responsible for all negative effects, which results in a perceptional bias towards positive rather than negative effects.
Negative effects from psychological treatments: a perspective.
  • D. Barlow
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 2010
Greater emphasis on more individual idiographic approaches to studying the effects of psychological interventions would seem necessary if psychologists are to avoid harming their patients and if they are to better understand the causes of negative or iatrogenic effects from their treatment efforts.
Adverse outcomes in group psychotherapy: risk factors, prevention, and research directions.
  • H. Roback
  • Psychology
    The Journal of psychotherapy practice and research
  • 2000
Although much of the literature on adverse outcomes in group therapy focuses on single risk factors (e.g., negative leader, group process, or patient characteristics), the author argues that an interactional model should be encouraged.
The outcome of behavior therapy for agoraphobia in relation to marital adjustment.
Patients' symptoms appeared to strengthen aspects of largely affectionless "compulsory" marriages and protect their spouses from recognizing or examining aspects of their own personal and interpersonal problems, and two distinct types of marital interaction were observed.
Psychotherapists‐In‐Training Evaluate Their Personal Therapy: Results of a UK Survey
SUMMARY. A national survey of the personal therapy experiences of UK Senior Registrars in Psychotherapy found that 87% reported their personal therapy had a moderate to very positive effect on both
Cognitive therapy of depression: pretreatment patient predictors of outcome.
Patient predictors of response to psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: findings in the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program.
The results provide indirect evidence of treatment specificity by identifying characteristics responsive to different modalities, which may be of value in the selection of patients for alternative treatments.
A randomized trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.
It was concluded that either exposure or a challenge to cognition can result in symptom reduction, although neither resulted in complete improvement.