Unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance subsequent learning.

@article{Kornell2009UnsuccessfulRA,
  title={Unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance subsequent learning.},
  author={Nate Kornell and Matthew J. Hays and Robert A. Bjork},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition},
  year={2009},
  volume={35 4},
  pages={
          989-98
        }
}
Taking tests enhances learning. But what happens when one cannot answer a test question-does an unsuccessful retrieval attempt impede future learning or enhance it? The authors examined this question using materials that ensured that retrieval attempts would be unsuccessful. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked fictional general-knowledge questions (e.g., "What peace treaty ended the Calumet War?"). In Experiments 3-6, participants were shown a cue word (e.g., whale) and were asked… CONTINUE READING

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