Unraveling the Mystery of Indian Monsoon Failure During El Niño

  title={Unraveling the Mystery of Indian Monsoon Failure During El Niño},
  author={K. Krishna Kumar and Balaji Rajagopalan and Martin P. Hoerling and Gary T. Bates and Mark A. Cane},
  pages={115 - 119}
The 132-year historical rainfall record reveals that severe droughts in India have always been accompanied by El Niño events. Yet El Niño events have not always produced severe droughts. We show that El Niño events with the warmest sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific are more effective in focusing drought-producing subsidence over India than events with the warmest SSTs in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The physical basis for such different impacts is… 
The Indian summer monsoon rainfall and ENSO
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NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Timing of El Niño-Related Warming and Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall
The relationship between all-India summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) and the timing of (El Nino– Southern Oscillation) ENSO-related warming/cooling is investigated, using observational data during the
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El-Nino refers to a large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate interaction associated with the episodic warming in sea surface temperatures (SST) across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. La


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Analysis of the 140-year historical record suggests that the inverse relationship between the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian summer monsoon (weak monsoon arising from warm ENSO
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Extremes of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, ENSO and equatorial Indian Ocean oscillation
It is well known that anomalies of the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) are linked to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We show that large anomalies of the ISMR are also linked to the
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An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same
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An analysis of observational data over the past 40 years shows a dipole mode in the Indian Ocean: a pattern of internal variability with anomalously low sea surface temperatures off Sumatra and high seasurface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean, with accompanying wind and precipitation anomalies.
Climate dynamics of the tropics
1. Introduction.- References.- 2. Diurnal Forcings and Local Circulations.- 2.1. Insolation and Heat Budget Forcing.- 2.2. Atmospheric Tides.- 2.3. Circulations on the Local and Meso-Scale.- 2.4.
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