# Unpredictability and undecidability in dynamical systems.

@article{Moore1990UnpredictabilityAU, title={Unpredictability and undecidability in dynamical systems.}, author={Moore}, journal={Physical review letters}, year={1990}, volume={64 20}, pages={ 2354-2357 } }

We show that motion with as few as three degrees of freedom (for instance, a particle moving in a three-dimensional potential) can be equivalent to a Turing machine, and so be capable of universal computation. Such systems possess a type of unpredictability qualitatively stronger than that which has been previously discussed in the study of low-dimensional chaos: Even if the initial conditions are known exactly, virtually any question about their long-term dynamics is undecidable.

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