Universals and Cultural Variations in 22 Emotional Expressions Across Five Cultures

  title={Universals and Cultural Variations in 22 Emotional Expressions Across Five Cultures},
  author={Daniel T. Cordaro and Rui Sun and Dacher Keltner and Shanmukh Vasant Kamble and Niranjan Huddar and Galen D McNeil},
We collected and Facial Action Coding System (FACS) coded over 2,600 free-response facial and body displays of 22 emotions in China, India, Japan, Korea, and the United States to test 5 hypotheses concerning universals and cultural variants in emotional expression. New techniques enabled us to identify cross-cultural core patterns of expressive behaviors for each of the 22 emotions. We also documented systematic cultural variations of expressive behaviors within each culture that were shaped by… 

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