Universally valid Heisenberg uncertainty relation

  title={Universally valid Heisenberg uncertainty relation},
  author={K. Fujikawa},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  • K. Fujikawa
  • Published 2012
  • Physics, Mathematics
  • Physical Review A
  • A universally valid Heisenberg uncertainty relation is proposed by combining the universally valid error-disturbance uncertainty relation of Ozawa with the relation of Robertson. This form of the uncertainty relation, which is defined with the same mathematical rigor as the relations of Kennard and Robertson, incorporates both of the intrinsic quantum fluctuations and measurement effects. 


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