Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.

@article{Amrani2011UniversalSP,
  title={Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.},
  author={Foued Amrani and Mohamed Amin Salhi and Philippe Grelu and Herv'e Leblond and François Sanchez},
  journal={Optics letters},
  year={2011},
  volume={36 9},
  pages={
          1545-7
        }
}
We investigate multiple-soliton pattern formations in a figure-of-eight passively mode-locked fiber laser. Operation in the anomalous dispersion regime with a double-clad fiber amplifier allows generation of up to several hundreds of solitons per round trip. We report the observation of remarkable soliton distributions: soliton gas, soliton liquid, soliton polycrystal, and soliton crystal, thus indicating the universality of such complexes. 
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